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PSY 325 (12)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 (Clinical Psychology).docx

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PSY 325
Oren A Amitay

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1 Chapter 1;
 - on the exam; understand what has happened to clinical psych over the years as a field...
 - the science-based approach to clinical psych - what are some criticisms?
 - in the section on clinical work...only comparing psychologists to psychiatrists on exam
 - Huns-Isaac (sp?) was a quasi-Nazi...in 1952 was famous for studying the effect of psychotherapy ...must know what did he conclude/find...since then they've done meta-analyses...must know the stat/percentage of these analyses
 - any blue-printed term in chapter 1; need to know definitions Chapter 1- Evolution of Clinical Psychology Mental health is a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.  About half of mental disorders begin before age 14.  Worldwide, 800,000 people commit suicide every year.  In emergencies, the number of people with mental dis- 
 orders is estimated to increase by 6–11%.  Mental disorders increase the risk for physical disorders.  Many health conditions increase the risk of mental 
 disorders.  Stigma prevents many people from seeking mental health 
 care.  There are great inequities in the availability of mental 
 health professionals across the world.  1 in 4 adult Americans suffers from a mental disorder Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on developing assessment strategies and interventions to deal with these painful experiences that touch everyone’s life.  Clinical psychology uses scientifically based methods to reliably and validly assess both normal and abnormal human functioning.  Objective of research in clinical psychology is to produce knowledge that can be used to guide the development and application of psychological services. Richard McFall- Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology  Scientific clinical psychology is the only legitimate and acceptable form of clinical psychology.  Psychological services should not be administered to the public (except under strict experimental conditions) until they have met the following four minimal criteria:  Criterion 1: The exact nature of the service must be described clearly.
 Criterion 2: The claimed benefits of the service must be stated explicitly.
 Criterion 3: These claimed benefits must be validated scientifically.
 Criterion 4: Possible negative side effects that might outweigh any benefits must be ruled out empirically.  The primary and overriding objective of doctoral programs in clinical psychology must be to produce the most competent clinical scientists possible. Evidence-Based Practice  (a) requires the clinician to synthesize information drawn from research and systematically collected data on the patient in question, the clinician’s professional experience, and the patient’s preferences when considering health care options  and (b) emphasizes the importance of informing patients, based on the best available research evidence, about viable options for assessment, prevention, or intervention services. Counseling Psychology  Focus of clinical psychology was on the assessment and treatment of psychopathology: anxiety, depression, and other symptoms that were of sufficient severity to warrant a clinical diagnosis.  Counseling psychologists provided services to individuals who were dealing with normal challenges in 2 life—those predictable developmental transitions such as leaving home to work or to attend college, changes in work or interpersonal roles, and handling the stress associated with academic or work demands.  Counseling psychologists were most commonly employed in educational settings; Clinical psychologists were most likely to be employed in hospital settings. Psychiatrists  Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illnesses  Emphasizes biological functioning and abnormalities  Psychiatric training generally emphasizes psychopharmacological treatment over psychological treatment  Psychiatrists were among the pioneers in the development of evidence-based psychological treatments - Aaron Beck was the primary developer of cognitive therapy for depression - Gerald Weissman was the primary developer of the interpersonal treatment of depression - Isaac Marks has played a prominent role in the development of cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders  The profession of
 psychiatry is facing a worldwide problem in recruiting new
 professionals. History of Clinical Psychology  Early Greek scholars in the period of 500–300 B.C., Hippocrates (often called the father of medicine) emphasized what is now known as a biopsychosocial approach to understanding both physical and psychological disorders - Hippocrates’ ‘‘bodily fluid’’ theory that imbalances in the levels of blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm are responsible for emotional disturban  Plato emphasized the role of societal forces and psychological needs in the development and alleviation of mental disorders, whereas Aristotle emphasized the biological determinants of mental disorders.  St. Vincent de Paul proposed that mental and physical illnesses were caused by natural forces and that the extreme manifestations of mental disturbances such as psychotic behavior were not caused by witchcraft or by satanic possession  Philippe Pinel, the director of a major asylum in Paris in the late 1700s (Enlightment Period), ordered that the chains be removed from all mental patients and that patients be treated humanely  In England, William Tuke advocated the development of hospitals based on modern ideas of appropriate care and established a country retreat in which patients lived and worked  In the United States, Benjamin Rush promoted the use of moral therapy with the mentally ill (a treatment philosophy that encouraged the use of compassion and patience rather than physical punishment or restraints). History of Assessment  German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin and the French psychologist Alfred Binet.  Kraepelin was convinced that all mental disorders were due to biological factors and that the biological causes of the disorders could not be effectively treated by the rather primitive methods available in the late 1800s and early 1900s. - Kraepelin assumed that by examining the symptomatic behavior of a large number of patients, it would be possible to discern the kinds of disturbances of affect, thought, and behavior that typically co-occurred - Kraepelin called these groups of symptoms that frequently co-occurred syndromes, and his classification system was built around identifying the ways in which these syndromes related to and differed from each other - His classification of what is now known as schizophrenia was one of his major accomplishments.  Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon were invited to develop a strategy to measure mental skills - Developed the Binet-Simon scale of intelligence, which consisted of more than 50 tests of mental skills that 3 could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 13 years. - Binet’s work established the importance of standardization in t
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