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Chapter 1

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PSY 402
Alba Agostino

Chapter 1: - Biopsychosocial perspective: a view of development as a complex interaction of biological, psychosocial and social processes. o Biological:  Physiological factors  Genetics o Psychological:  Cognition  Emotions  Personality o Social (environment/ context):  Social context  History  Culture - Identity: how people view themselves in the biological, psychological and social domains…interaction of these domains forms an overall view of the “self.” - Four Principles of Adult Development and Aging: 1. Changes are continuous over the life span  Changes occurring later on in adulthood build on what has occurred during ones past  “continuity principle”  individuals remain the same, even though they change. 2. Only the Survivor grow old:  In order for people to become old, they have to not die.  Aging individuals are increasingly self—selected  Have been able to avoid death, suggesting that o Inherited good genes (biological) o Emotionally healthy (psychological) o Surrounded with good support system (social)  5 ways to shorten your life: o Being overweight o Drinking and driving o Eating inadequate fruits and vegetables o Being physically inactive o Smoking 3. Individuality matters  People vary within age and between age groups  Aging results in people becoming more different from each other rather than more alike o Physical functioning o Psychological performance o Conditions of living  As people go through life, their experiences cause them to diverge from others of the same age in more and more ways  Principle: inter-individual differences: differences between people o people of the same age may vary so dramatically from one another that they may more closely resemble people from different age groups  Intra-individual differences: difference within an individual (multidirectionality of development) o Not all systems develop at the same rate within the person—while some functions increase, others decrease.  Intelligence gain in one area, lose in another and stability in another domain.  Functioning does not necessarily need to go downhill as people get older 4. Normal aging is different from disease  Intrinsic aging processes are different from those associate with illness  Normal aging (primary aging): set of change built into the hard wiring of the organism, which progress at different rates among individuals but nevertheless are universal, intrinsic and progressive  Impaired again (secondary aging): changes due to disease, function of an abnormal set of changes afflicting a segment rather than the entirety of the older population  Optimal aging (successful aging): aging process is slowed or altered because the individual has engaged in preventative and compensatory strategies to avoid negative changes that would otherwise occur with normal or impaired aging. - Division by Age of the Over-65 population: o Young-old: 65-74 o Old-old: 75-84 o Oldest-old: 85+ o Centenarians: Aged over the age of 100 o Super-centenarians: Aged 110 or older. o Jeanne Louise Calment: oldest documented living human (122) o Functional age:  Indicator of persons true characteristics and abilities and as way to understand aging trends in society vs. the chorological age  Includes:  Biological age: quality of a
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