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Chapter 2

Adult Development Chapter 2 textbook notes

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PSY 402
Tara M Burke

Adult Development Chapter 2: Nature and Nurture inAdulthood - Life Span Perspective: views development as continuous from childhood through to old age - Contextual Influences on development: The effects of social processes in changes within the individual - Developmental Science: Gradually replacing the term developmental psychology o The desire to understand the dynamic interactions among and withn each level of analysis of change from bio to social o Need to look at multiple factors in development Models of Individual- Environment Interactions - Once though that nature was the only influence in ones development until “nurture evolved” o John Watson: a child’s future could be molded entirely by environment provided by parents - Niche-Picking: genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children’s lives take. Children are born with certain abilities and predispositions - Gerontology: Study of the aging process began to examine development prior to old age Models of Individual-Environmental Interactions - Organismic Model: (organism) “nature” drives development, growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition as expressed in the physical/ mental development of the individual - Mechanistic Model: (machine) “nurture” is the primary force in development, growth throughout life occurs through the individual’s exposure to experiences that present new learning opportunities - Interactionist Model: the evolving field of developmental science most closely represents o Not only do genetics and environment interact in complex ways, but the individual also participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment o Multidirectionality: there are multiple paths in development; development does not proceed according to a series of linear stages operating along a linear pathway o Plasticity: proposes that the course of development may be altered depending on the nature of specific interactions of the individual in the environment - The biopsychosocial perspective falls within the interactionist model because it considers multiple dimensions across life - Reciprocal Nature of Development: People both influence and are influenced by events in their lives Sociocultural Models of Development - Ecological Perspective: indentifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with individual processes of change 1. Inner biological level: physiological changes that take place over time 2. Adaptional Processes: Cognition, Coping, personality 3. Proximal Social Relational: Peers, Family, school, work 4. Sociocultural: Government, educational institutions, public policy, economic systems - Life Course Perspective: emphasizes importance of age-based norms, roles and attitudes as influences that shape events throughout development o Disengagement Theory: one of the first theories in the field of social gerontology to propose a set of specific linkages between social roles and well- being among older adults; Propsed that the normal/ natural evolution of life causes older adults to wish and loosen their social ties (withdrawal of the individual from society) o Activity Theory: view that older adults would rather be involved and not forced out of productive social roles- according to this theory, older adults do not seek disengagement from society but instead prefer to remain active and involved o Continuity Theory: whether disengagement or activity is beneficial to the older adult depends on the individuals personality- some prefer disengagement while others may become miserable if they try and disengage themselves - Ageism as a Social Facotr in the ageing process o Ageism: a set of beliefs, attitudes, social institutions and acts that denigrate individuals or groups based on their chronological age o Primary negative feature of ageism: it is founded on overgeneralizations about individuals based on a set of characteristics that have a negative social meaning o Negative attitudes toward aging represent fear of death and dying o Modernization hypothesis: the increasing urbanization and industrialization of Western society have led to lower social value for older people o Multiple Jeopardy Hypothesis: older individuals who fit more than one discriminated-against category are affected by biases against each of these categorizations. Thus women are subject to ageism and sexism and minority- status women are subject to racism, ageism and sexism Alternatives to this hypothesis • Age-as-leveler view: as people become older, age overrides all other “isms” • Inoculation hypothesis: older minorities and women become immune to the effects of ageism through years of exposure to discrimination and stereotyping- helped them develop a tolerance o Social Clock: normative expectations for the ages at which major life events should occur- i.e. parenthood, established career etc. For most people, the social clock provides a measure of evaluating their life’s successes Psychological Models of Development inAdulthood - Erikson’s Psychosocial theory: o Ego: Goes through a development process that is 8 stages long. Each stage is defined as a crisis in which particular stage-specific issues present themselves as challenges to the individual’s ego o Individuals pass through a series of tranasitions in which they are vulnerable to a complex interaction of biological, psychological and social forces characteristic of their period of life o Epigenetic Principle: each stage unfolds from the previous stage according to a predestined order IdentityAcheivement vs. Identity Diffusion o Emerges in adolescence o Holds importance throughout adulthood o An individual with a clear identity has a clearer sense of continuity with the past o In Contrast, Identity Diffudion involves lack of direction and vagueness about life’s purposes, unclear sense of self Intimacy vs. Isolation o Intimacy involves establishing a mutually satisfying close relationship with another person o Establishing close relationships with others depends to some extent on how securely formed the individual’s sense of self is Generativity vs. Stagnation o Focuses on the psychosocial issu
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