Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (860)
PSY 402 (75)
Chapter 2

Adult Development Chapter 2 textbook notes

5 Pages
159 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 402
Professor
Tara M Burke
Semester
Fall

Description
Adult Development Chapter 2: Nature and Nurture inAdulthood - Life Span Perspective: views development as continuous from childhood through to old age - Contextual Influences on development: The effects of social processes in changes within the individual - Developmental Science: Gradually replacing the term developmental psychology o The desire to understand the dynamic interactions among and withn each level of analysis of change from bio to social o Need to look at multiple factors in development Models of Individual- Environment Interactions - Once though that nature was the only influence in ones development until “nurture evolved” o John Watson: a child’s future could be molded entirely by environment provided by parents - Niche-Picking: genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction that children’s lives take. Children are born with certain abilities and predispositions - Gerontology: Study of the aging process began to examine development prior to old age Models of Individual-Environmental Interactions - Organismic Model: (organism) “nature” drives development, growth in childhood and beyond is the manifestation of genetic predisposition as expressed in the physical/ mental development of the individual - Mechanistic Model: (machine) “nurture” is the primary force in development, growth throughout life occurs through the individual’s exposure to experiences that present new learning opportunities - Interactionist Model: the evolving field of developmental science most closely represents o Not only do genetics and environment interact in complex ways, but the individual also participates in his or her development through reciprocal relations with the environment o Multidirectionality: there are multiple paths in development; development does not proceed according to a series of linear stages operating along a linear pathway o Plasticity: proposes that the course of development may be altered depending on the nature of specific interactions of the individual in the environment - The biopsychosocial perspective falls within the interactionist model because it considers multiple dimensions across life - Reciprocal Nature of Development: People both influence and are influenced by events in their lives Sociocultural Models of Development - Ecological Perspective: indentifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with individual processes of change 1. Inner biological level: physiological changes that take place over time 2. Adaptional Processes: Cognition, Coping, personality 3. Proximal Social Relational: Peers, Family, school, work 4. Sociocultural: Government, educational institutions, public policy, economic systems - Life Course Perspective: emphasizes importance of age-based norms, roles and attitudes as influences that shape events throughout development o Disengagement Theory: one of the first theories in the field of social gerontology to propose a set of specific linkages between social roles and well- being among older adults; Propsed that the normal/ natural evolution of life causes older adults to wish and loosen their social ties (withdrawal of the individual from society) o Activity Theory: view that older adults would rather be involved and not forced out of productive social roles- according to this theory, older adults do not seek disengagement from society but instead prefer to remain active and involved o Continuity Theory: whether disengagement or activity is beneficial to the older adult depends on the individuals personality- some prefer disengagement while others may become miserable if they try and disengage themselves - Ageism as a Social Facotr in the ageing process o Ageism: a set of beliefs, attitudes, social institutions and acts that denigrate individuals or groups based on their chronological age o Primary negative feature of ageism: it is founded on overgeneralizations about individuals based on a set of characteristics that have a negative social meaning o Negative attitudes toward aging represent fear of death and dying o Modernization hypothesis: the increasing urbanization and industrialization of Western society have led to lower social value for older people o Multiple Jeopardy Hypothesis: older individuals who fit more than one discriminated-against category are affected by biases against each of these categorizations. Thus women are subject to ageism and sexism and minority- status women are subject to racism, ageism and sexism Alternatives to this hypothesis • Age-as-leveler view: as people become older, age overrides all other “isms” • Inoculation hypothesis: older minorities and women become immune to the effects of ageism through years of exposure to discrimination and stereotyping- helped them develop a tolerance o Social Clock: normative expectations for the ages at which major life events should occur- i.e. parenthood, established career etc. For most people, the social clock provides a measure of evaluating their life’s successes Psychological Models of Development inAdulthood - Erikson’s Psychosocial theory: o Ego: Goes through a development process that is 8 stages long. Each stage is defined as a crisis in which particular stage-specific issues present themselves as challenges to the individual’s ego o Individuals pass through a series of tranasitions in which they are vulnerable to a complex interaction of biological, psychological and social forces characteristic of their period of life o Epigenetic Principle: each stage unfolds from the previous stage according to a predestined order IdentityAcheivement vs. Identity Diffusion o Emerges in adolescence o Holds importance throughout adulthood o An individual with a clear identity has a clearer sense of continuity with the past o In Contrast, Identity Diffudion involves lack of direction and vagueness about life’s purposes, unclear sense of self Intimacy vs. Isolation o Intimacy involves establishing a mutually satisfying close relationship with another person o Establishing close relationships with others depends to some extent on how securely formed the individual’s sense of self is Generativity vs. Stagnation o Focuses on the psychosocial issu
More Less

Related notes for PSY 402

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit