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Chapter 10

Adult Development Chapter 10 textbook notes

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PSY 402
Tara M Burke

Chapter 10 Work, Retirement, and leisure patterns Work: job, occupation, vocation, profession, career Why we work:  Money (earn a living)  Personal growth  Sense of identity • Percent of labor force by age group • Gender patterns • The Gender gap: Proportion of women’s to men’s salaries • (2009 overall = 81.2%) Some Statistics… • Gender income disparity • Females earn less than males. • Highest income: • Males = ages 45-64, this is time period of when males make the most income in their life • Females = ages 55-64, discrepancy gets worse as women get older • In 2013, 23.9% of the workforce was made of 55+ population The meaning of work • For majority the purpose of work is to earn a living • Occupational Priorities: • Reflect the culture and time in which people live and the characteristics of the job and quality of the workplace • Does job strain affect one’s decision to retire? • Affects those in managerial, professional or technical jobs • What factors may have contributed? • Cannot choose retirement date due to lack of resources • Professional workers may have different job expectations • Professional workers may have more opportunity to find work post-retirement Occupational choice • Occupation is a key element in identity • Occupational selection affects younger, middle-aged and older adults • As people face different life issues or learn new insights about themselves they may decide to change their occupations • Holland’s Vocational Development Theory occupational or vocational aspirations and interests are the direct expression of an individual’s personality • Six types of vocational interests: Focuses on preferences! • Defining RAISEC Model • Realistic • Investigative • Artistic • Social. Teacher • Enterprising: people who enjoy using verbal skills in positions of power 1 • Conventional: verbal and quantitative skills, concrete tasks , bank teller, or HR person – where there is procedures to follow • Acongruency effect! (a fit) • Testing the RIASEC Model • Strong Vocational Interest Inventory (SVII) • Self-Directed Search (SDS) • The O*NET is an online interactive national database of occupations used by vocational placement agencies in the United States o Matches the Holland personality types to various occupations • Super’s Self-Concept Theory: • Highlights the desire for adults to reach full realization of their inner potential • People choose occupations that are most “true” to their inner-selves Super’s self-concept theory (see fig 10.5) Variations in vocational development • Establishment • Mentoring, adequate training, favourable work hours • Maintenance • Greater opportunities to develop leadership and managerial skills • Disengagement • Pension funds and insurance benefits • Revisions to Super’s stages • Does not reflect the workforce we are engaged in • Recycling: • Change field of career part way through occupational life • Plateauing: • Remain indefinitely in a maintenance-like period Boundaryless Career: • Career that doesn't follow a set pathway • No physical and psychological borders Protean career: • Career path that is determined by yourself • Flexible and adaptable Vocational satisfaction • Vocational Satisfaction: • Extent to which a worker has positive views of his or her job and aspects of the job • Greater sense of “fit” = greater vocation satisfaction and commitment • Intrinsic and extrinsic factors (motivation) • Vocational Satisfaction: 2 • Extent to which a worker has positive views of his or her job and aspects of the job • Greater sense of “fit” = greater vocation satisfaction and commitment Intrinsic factors • Interest in task itself • Feelings of control from within self • Features that cannot be found in the exact same fashion in different types of jobs Extrinsic Factors • External rewards • Feelings of control by outer conditions • Features that accompany a job Vocational satisfaction • Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) o Intrinsic factors motivates job fulfillment  Allows worker to achieve self-actualization • Extrinsic factors relate to the quality of the work environment o Can enhance or detract, influencing worker aspirations • Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) • Motivation is a complex mix of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. o Both are associated with: o Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness • But extrinsic can reduce job satisfaction. • “Motivational crowding out” • People do work for extrinsic factors. • But maximal satisfaction comes intrinsic • Deci (1971) examined extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in college students • 24 undergraduate students • Control group received no extrinsic rewards • Experimental group received extrinsic rewards • Money = Less intrinsic motivation • Verbal Reinforcement = Greater intrinsic motivation • Affective Evaluation Theory • Positive and negative emotions at work influence occupational satisfaction: • Positive mood • Correlates with autonomy, support • Negative mood • Correlates with stress, feeling overwhelmed Vocational satisfaction 3 • Theory of DispositionalAffectivity • Relate to a person’s affective tendencies • Personality traits, stable over time • Positive affectivity • More satisfied, committed to job • Negative affectivity • Predisposed to experience negative moods • Less committed to job • Occupational Reinforcement Patterns • Whether job fulfills work-related values and needs: • Achievement • Job security and working conditions • Recognition • Social relationships • Support from management • Independence • Vocational satisfaction: Stress and metabolic syndrome o Stress related to higher chances of getting metabolic syndrome • Whitehall II Study o Found an association between work
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