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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Intelligence

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PSY 402
Sohail Rashid

Chapter 8 IntelligenceNovember01101148 AMChapter 8 IntelligenceThree avenues of research on intelligence and age Psychometric approach1Lifespan approach 2Cognitive process approach 3Intelligence consists of three major abilitiesProblem solving ability which consists of behaviours as reasoning logically identifying 1connections between ideas seeing all aspects of a problem and making good decisions Verbal ability include speaking articulately reading with high comprehension and having 2good vocabulary Social competence includes accepting others for who they are admitting mistakes displaying 3interest in the world at large and being on time for appointmentsThe Big Picture A Life Span ViewTheories of intelligence are multidimensional specifying many domains of intellectual abilityIntelligence consists of many types of skillsNo single generic type of intelligence is responsible for all the different kinds of mental activities we performThe lifespan concept including multidirectionalty plasticity and interindividual variability play an important role in conceptualization of intellectual changeSome intellectual decline may be seen with age but stability and growth in mental functioning can also be seen across adulthoodThe first concept multidirectionality is the distinct patterns of change in abilities over the lifespan these patterns are different for different abilities Directional change in intelligence depends on the skill in question eg Knowledge increases with age but basic cognitive mechanisms show more declinesPlasticityis the range of functioning within a person and the conditions under which a persons abilities can be modified with a specific age rangeCognitive function is changeable Just because someone forgets how to do something doesnt mean they cant be retaughtLast concept interindividual variability acknowledges that adults differ in the direction of their intellectual development Within a given cohort of generation some people show longitudinal decline in specific abilities whereas some people show stability of functioning in those same abilities Finally others show increases Using the four concepts of multidimensionality plasticity multidirectionality and interindividual variability Baltes and colleagues proposed the dualcomponent modelof intellectual functioningTwo interrelated types of developmental processes are postulatedMechanics of intelligence concerns the neurophysiological architecture of the mindCognitive abilities include basic forms of thinking associated with information processing and problem solving such as reasoning spatial orientation or perceptual speedIntellectual change in this first component is greatest during childhood and adolescence as we acquire the skills to handle complex cognitive tasks such as those encountered in school Pragmatic intelligenceconcerns acquired bodies of knowledge available from and embedded within culture Includes everyday cognitive performance and human adaptation includes verbal knowledge wisdom and practical problem solvingGrowth in this area dominates adulthood continues later in lifeResearch Approaches to intelligenceSchaie and Horn have concentrated on thepsychometric approach or measuring intelligence asPsychology Page 1
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