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PSY 402 (75)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Attention and Perceptual Processing

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 402
Professor
Sohail Rashid
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 6 Attention and Perceptual ProcessingNovember2610506 PMThe InformationProcessing ModelInformation Processing CognitionEncoding Storage short term memory sensory long term memoryCocktail Effect at a party you here people talking and you block it out but you can hear your name and you look to find who is saying your name and can only think about what theyre saying about youOverview of the ModelThe informationprocessing model uses a computer metaphor to explain how people process stimuliJust like on a computer information enters peoples brains and is transformed coded and stored in various waysThe informationprocessing approach is based on three assumptionsPeople are ACTIVE participants in the process1Both quantitative how much information is remembered and qualitative what kinds of 2information are remembered aspects of performance can be examinedInformation is processed through a series of hypothetical stages or stores3Sensory MemoryAll memories start as sensory stimuliSensory memory is the ability that results from the earliest step in information processing where the new incoming information is first registeredIt takes in large amounts of information very rapidlyDoes not seem to have the limits that other processes do when attentional focus concentration is appliedIt is more like a very brief and almost identical representation of the stimuli that exist in the observable environmentHowever unless we pay attention to this information very quickly the representation is lostie Try drawing either side of a penny in great detail You probably see pennies every day but never paid enough attention to them to processes them to a longer lasting storeThere are no age differences found in sensory memory Older adults can effectively retrieve information briefly represented in sensory memoryAttention Processes Types of AttentionDo age differences exist in what information is processedAttention is composed of separable dimensions serving different functionsThe complex tasks we engage in usually use more than one attentional functionAttention involves at least three interdependent processes selective attention divided attention and sustained attentionSelective attention is the way in which we choose in information we will process further We are trying to move information from sensory memory to working memory We have to decide which stimuli is important and move this to working memoryOlder adults have more difficulty filtering out distractors compared to younger peopleUnfamiliar information is usually processed over familiar informationVisual Searchtests involve asking participants to find a letter eg P on a screen full of other letters The task gets more complicated as different letters are used Tasks like this always involve responding to a stimulus the target and ignoring everything else the nontarget Such tasks measure selective attention because the main data involve nontarget interference effects ie The degree to which the nontargets interfere with the ability to respond only to targets Older adults reaction time is slower and more prone to errors in the presence ofPsychology Page 1
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