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Chapter 18

PSY295 Chapter 18 + Lecture 7.docx

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PSY 434
Jian Guan

PSY295 Chapter 18 + Lecture 7 Memory and Amnesia What is Memory? -Memory is the ability to capture each successive present moment within the nervous system so that we are forever changed by it What is learning and memory? -Learning – Relatively permanent change in an organism’s behaviour as a result of experience -Memory – is the acquisition and retention of, and the ability to retrieve information, personal experiences and procedures( skills and habits) Stages in Memory Formation and Retrieval 1. Encoding – Processing of incoming information ( STUDY)  Acquisition – registers inputs in sensory buffers Consolidation – creation of a strong representation over time 2. Storage – the result of acquisition and consolidation (RETENTION) 3. Retrieval – utilizes stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behaviour ( TEST) What is memory for? -Holding onto the details of everyday life  where you parked the car  People  scheduled appointments ...etc. -Maintaining and manipulating information on-line Mental arithmetic  Phone numbers Patient H.M -Had intractable epilepsy (uncontrollable) -result of damage to hippocampus and surrounding area -Seizures began at age 10 and worsened by age 16 -Age 27 Neurosurgery to stop seizures  performed a bilateral removal of medial temporal lobes. After the surgery, there were some functional consequences -had memory impairment  global amnesia *BUT -no language, perceptual or motor deficits, IQ remained the same, intact short term memory, and remembered who he was *Essentially, his problem was -Anterograde amnesia – unable to form new long-term memory -because of the severity, it was referred to as global anterograde amnesia -Retrograde amnesia – NO memory for the 11 years prior to this surgery -- we all have experienced an amnesia to some degree  forgetting common things ....is infantile amnesia Short-Term Memory: Sensory - Lasts a very short period of time  ms to s -Decays rapidly  ichnic – sensory memory for visual information  Echoic – sensory information for auditory information -Tested by asking for partial report STM: Working Memory -Working memory refers to the capacity to hold information for short periods of time and to use or manipulate that information in thinking and problem-solving tasks -2 Components: -online storage (30s or less) -Manipulative (executive) - Short term information may be related to objects or to movements, these two different kinds of short- term memory may be related to the ventral(Object recognition) or dorsal (motor) streams of sensory processing. STM: Testing Working Memory -Delayed response paradigm -Monkeys with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(DLPFC) lesions perform poorly in this working memory task -Working memory depends on intact frontal systems ( DLPFC) Long-Term Memory -Long term memories are of three types and are supported by three pathways in the brain -Implicit memories unconscious nonintentional memory. Ex. Motorskill such as riding a bike or using language. This is data driven, or “bottom up”. Does not need higher level cortical process -Explicit memories  Conscious intentional remembering of fact-based semantic memories(2+2 =4) and personal experiences, or episodic memories (what you did lastnight). Depends on conceptually driven, or “top down” processing in which a subject reorganize the data to store it. Can be affected by how information was originally processed. -Emotional memories arousing, vivid, and available on prompting. Similar to implicit, it relies on bottom up processing. Likewise, it has the intentional, top-down element of explicit memory in that the internal cues that we use in processing emotional events can also be used to initiate their spontaneous recall. Generally, long term memory of explicit is Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term memory Explicit Memory (declarative memory Episodic(events) Semantic (facts) -Specific personal -General Knowledge experiences from particular time & place -Flow of info is: inputs from sensory and motor  temporal lobe structures and PFC -The independence of implicit and explicit memory can be demonstrated in other ways as well, especially in normal control subjects. If controls are asked to think about the meaning of a word or the shape of the word, their explicit recall of the word is greatly improved> However, scores on word completion taps on implicit memory and are not affected by this manipulation mentioned above.  this phenomenon is known as Depth-of-processing effect -If subjects are shown a word in one modality ( ex. If they hear the word) and are tested for recall in another modality (ex. They must write the word of identify it by reading), their scores on a word- completion test are greatly reduced However, their explicit recall is little affected. This phenomenon is known as study-test modality shift. Long Term Memory - Episodic Memory Semantic Memory -Personally experienced Events -Facts about the world -Conscious awareness of the -No episodic recollection of the specific circumstances self in time and place surrounding this learning -can recollect details of event -Lacks context -Autobiographical Memory -eg. The eiffle towers is in paris. -eg. Wedding day LTM: Testing Episodic Memory -Autobiographical interview -Brian Levine’s autobiographical studies (on going)  on patient named G.O - Recording personal episodic memories -Recording semantic memories -fMRI -episodic or autobiographic memory consists ofsingular events that a personal recalls. -it is uniquely different from other neurocognitive memory systems in that it enables human beings to remember past personal experiences; basically life experiences centered on the person LTM: Patient K.C - Bilateral hippocampal damage as a result of a motorcycle accident and suffered serious traumatic brain injury, with extensive lesions in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions including the medial temporal lobes and consequence severe amnesia. -resulted in loss of episodic/autobiographic memory ; but most cognitive capabilities are intact -although all aspects are normal, he however had dense amnesia for personal experiences  thus, cannot recollect any autobiographic events.  this inability covers his whole life, from birth to present -Although he knows and understands either himself or physical time, he has difficulty “time travelling” He canot say what he is g
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