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Chapter 3

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PSY 602
Jian Guan

Neuropsychology Notes Ch 3: Organization of the nervous system Portrait: stroke Stroke: interruption of blood to the brain that kills brain cells and causes a sudden appearance of neurological symptoms. Ischemia: a deficiency of blood flow to the brain due to functional constriction or to the actual obstruction of a blood vessel, such as by a clot. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA): breaks up clots caused by ischemia and allows normal blood flow to the affected area. (must be taken within 3 hours of a stroke. Fatal if stroke caused by hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic Stroke: stroke caused by a hemorrhage to the brain. Nuclei: groups of cells forming clusters that can be visualized by special stains to identify a functional grouping.  Some brain nuclei are folded, others have distinctive shapes and colours. Neuroanatomy: Finding your way around the Brain Describing locations of the Brain Description in reference to each other: Rostrum: beak Description in direction of a cut through Caudal: tail brain: Dorsal: back  Aka superior Coronal section: cut in vertical plane Ventral: stomach Horizontal section: viewed looking down  Aka inferior on brain from above Sagittal: cut lengthways from front to Description in reference to face: back and viewed from the side Anterior/frontal: in front Posterior: behind Lateral: side Medial: middle Structures of the Brain: Ipsilateral: structures that lie on the same side Contralateral: structures that lie on opposite sides Bilateral: structures that take up both sides Proximal: structures that are clse together Distal: Structures that are far apart Afferent: movement toward the brain  Ie: sensory pathways Efferent: movement away from the brain  Ie: motor pathways A Wonderland of Nomenclature  Take home message: one brain structure can have many names because they may perform many different functions that are discovered over time. o AKA: don’t get confused when one area has 10 million friggin names! An Overview of Nervous System Structure and Function Central Nervous System (CNS)  Consists of brain and spinal cord Somatic Nervous System (SNS)  Consists of all the spinal and cranial nerves to and from sensory organs, muscles, joints, and skin  Produces movement and transmits incoming sensory info to the CNS o Ie: vision, hearing, pain, temperature, touch, and body orientation Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)  Balances body’s internal organs  Includes parasympathetic nerves (calming), and sympathetic nerves (arousing) Support and Protection  Brain and spinal cord supported and protected in 4 ways: 1. Bone protects brain and spine (CNS). Peripheral nervous system (PNS) not as protected but can regenerate dendrites and axons if damaged 2. Meninges (membrane layers). i. dura matter: tough double layer of tissue enclosing brain in loose sack ii. arachnoid membrane: thin sheet of delicate tissues that follows contours of brain (web-like) iii. pia matter: moderately tough tissue that clings to surface of brain 3. Cerebrospinal fluid protects against impact and pressure change in brain. Fluid is continuously made and drained through circulatory system. If drainage blcked, results in hydrocephalus: water brain=death or mental retardation 4. Blood-brain barrier protects brain against chemicals. Blood Supply  Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) irrigates medial and dorsal part of cortex  Middle cerebral artery (MCA) irrigates lateral surface of cortex  Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) irrigates ventral and posterior surfaces of cortex Neurons and Glia Neural stem cell (aka germinal cell): undifferentiated cell that produce specialized cells in the brain, can perform self-renewal  Source of new neurons for some parts of the brain Progenitor cells: act as precursor cells and give rise to primitive types of neurons called blasts Blasts: differentiate into neurons or glia, which make up the adult brain Sensory neurons: bring info to the CNS Bipolar neuron: simplest sensory neuron. Consists of cell body with dendrite and axon on the other side Somatosensory neuron: dendrite and axon connected to speed up transmission Interneurons: Associate sensory and motor activity in CNS Motor Neurons: Send Signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles. Grey, White, and Reticular Matter Grey matter: capillary blood vessels, and neural cell bodies give it colour White matter: axons covered in glial cells give this section its white colour Reticular matter: cell bodies and axons give it netlike structure Layers, Nuclei, Nerves Tract: large collections of axons projecting to or away from a nucleus or a layer (well
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