Textbook Notes (363,074)
Canada (158,173)
Psychology (860)
PSY 654 (25)
Jian Guan (3)
Chapter 12

Psy270 Chapter 12 Problem Solving.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
PSY 654
Jian Guan

Psy270 Chapter 12 Problem Solving *There are two different types of problem 1. Well-defined problems: Usually have a correct answer 2.Ill-defind problems: those that occur frequently in everyday life and that it doesn’t necessarily have a “correct” answer. -A well-defined problem is able to be solved using a set of procedures and/ or reasoning strategies -an ill-defined problem does not have a clear path to its solution and we cannot use a predetermined set of rules. Well- defined problems -There are various strategies we can use to get to the one correct answer of a well defined problem -an algorithms is a series of operations that can be applied repeatedly and will eventually reach the correct solution -A heuristic is a general rule that is usually correct -Heuristics make use of prior knowledge and past experience about how the world works Problem Solving Heuristics -Working forward: choose the alternative that appears to lead most directly to the goals eg. I want a car  I will get some money  I will get a job  I will drop out of school  etc. -Working backward: Start from the goal and move backwards to get to the initial state eg. I want to be a clinical psychologist  I need to get my PhD  I need to get into grad school  I need to write my GREs  etc. -Generate and Test: Think of all the possible alternatives and try out each one ( trial and error) eg. Make alist of things to eat that start with “c”  Cake, cookie, canoe eg. I want a job Work at a bank, become a teacher, learn to be a carpenter. -Means-ends analysis: Break the problem into subproblems and minimize the distance between the initial state and the goal state; According to Newell and Simon, the person has to search the problem space to find a solution e.g. I want a job  I need a find job postings  I need a resume. Problem Solving by Analogy -We use the analogy approach to problem solving when we are faced with isomorphic problems. -Isomorphic problems share structural features but often have different surface features -The biggest obstacle we face when using the analogy approach is determining the real problem -Duncker problem demonstrated the difficulty we have seeing the similarities isomorphic problems Without a convergence problem only 10% solved he radiation problem With a convergence problem 30% solved the radiation With a convergence problem and self-generated solution 41% solved the radiation problem With a convergence problem, solution and hint 75% solved the radiation problem . - Kurtz & Loewenstein (2007) demonstrated that the way we encode information influences how easily we can use analogies to solve problem Group 1: read convergence problem and solve radiation problem -15% solved radiation problem Group 2: Read 2 convergence problems and solve Radiation problem -41% solved Radiation problem Group 3: Solve Radiation and one convergence (Army) problem simultaneously -27% solved both problems -Comparison encourages people to create schemas of the problems Ill-defined Problems -This type of problems do not have a well-defined problem space -Ill-defined problems require insight – the “aha” feeling -Ill-defined problems often require diveregent thinking, whereas well-defined problems require convergent thinking -Divergent thinking is related to creativity - Divergent thinking, creativity and testing -Creativity is associated with divergent thinking- thinking that is open-ended involving a large number of potential “solutions” and no “correct” answer. -Divergent thinking can be contrasted with convergent thinking, which is thinking that works towards finding a solution to a specific problem that usually has a correct answer. -Tests of divergent thinking are used to distinguish clever, creative people -Unusual uses test (Guilford, 1954): Name as many uses as you think of for: a) a toothpick, b) brick, c) paperclip -Remote Associates Test(RAT;Mednick, 1962): Find a fourth word that is associated with the following 3 words  rat-blue-cottage. Is Insight Special? -insight is the sudden realization of a problem’s solution -GEstaltists belived insight is a special kind of thinking (productive thinking) -Unconscious problem solving(cf. Incubation) -Short-circuiting of regular problem solving strategies (cf. Release from mental set) -Metcalfe and David Wiebe did an experiment designed to distuinguish between insight problems and noninsight problems. Provided evidence that ill-defined problems are solved by sudden solution -Additionally, brain acitivty in prefrontal cortex (and ACC) differs between solved and unsolved insight problems. Incubation - sometimes when we can’t solve a problem the solution comes to us after a break when we’re not thinking about it- this is incubation -WE have a lot of anecdotal evidence for incubation but it often cannot be replicated in the lab Gestalt Psychologist Problem solving for Gestalt psychologists was about 1. How people represent a problem in their mind 2. How solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation Res
More Less

Related notes for PSY 654

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.