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Chapter 3

chap #3 Attention.docx

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Ryerson University
PSY 654
Jian Guan

Psy270 Cognitive Psychology Attention Attention and Consciousness - types of attention  Overt attention: when we are being obvious that we are paying attention to something..looking  Covert attention: when we are not being obvious that we are attention to something. Ex. Ease dropping pg98 Exogenous = driven by things out in the world that is drawing your attention Endogenous – opposite whic his directing the attention from within. You decide that you want to ease drop on something. Exogenous is almost always Overt attention Endogenous however can be covert or overt attention Attention is linked to consciousness -Habituation: ex. Your ass on the chair...you don’t feel it  you stopped paying attention to it and you don’t feel it . However, unlike sensory adaption, you can bring the attention to it when you pay attention to it. **habituation is cognitive -DIshabituation: you are conscious of it. -Sensory adaptation: happens at the cellular level where they adapt to the sensory thus you don’t feel it. you cant bring the attention back  ex. You take a shit and you don’t really smell it but when you leave the wasroom and come back, it stinks! However, until you leave the washroom, if you stay there you will not smell it. **sensory adaption is cellular Smith and Merikle(1999) -presented a group of participatnats a word and a cross and a puppy -instructed them to observe the puppy -even if they look at the dog, both the word and the cross is within their vision -their task after loking at the display , thy see a stem of words which they are to finish the word ex. PUP  could be puppet or pupil etc... - -this resulted in  group that did not focus on the word puppy seemed to complete the word with puppy more than the group that focused the word puppy>  iT showed that they were unconsciously taking attention to the word puppy !! ;; they did not know about the word puppy.----it slipped out Inattentional blindness: example...the video of group passing a baskeltbal while a gorilla passes bythem and the curtain change colour. If you focus your attention to one of the following, you will likely miss the other change blindness: instead of not noticing the presence of something like above, you do not notice the change. ex. You talk to someone and something blocks the view of the person and during the brief moment you exchange the person when another person of the same sex and they do not notice the change in person!. Succesfull 50 % of the time!!!! -fun fact: man seemed to notice the change better if their conversation partner is a female What decides what we take attention to?  It is by Stimulus saliency! -It is what grabs our attention and it mostly has physical things -ex. Motion, colour, brightness, contrast, orientation | topdown process: attention is driven by other important things The role of attention -selective attention: paying attention to one thing and ignoring everything else :study iusing dichotic listetning tasks and shadowing ....different messages in each ear and the task is a shadowing task where they are to selectively attend one msg and ignore the other . Cherry’s dichotic listening: although both ear can hear msges, we tend to pay attention to message in one ear only. -additionally, people noticed sensory information in unattended ear. The ear that did not receive the msg. -however, the unattended ear that received the msg did not notice the meaning of the msg. They wont be able to notice what the language was, if it changed, what the word was...non of the meaning got through basically! Selective Attention -we can also selective attend visual information. Ex. Fuse the picture of a hand clapping and people playing basketball and ask to see how many claps there are. Filter Theories of Attention -the earliest models were called filter theories  aka bottleneck theory. -they had to come up with how sensory info How does the filter theory word? -Broadbent’s early selection model  this theory describes how we have all these things in the world ...all the information comes in and all that info passes through attention filter where its job is to only let through the meaning of one thing. That information goes through the detector and is finally processed. -This explains the dichotic listening and how we are not aware of it because of the filtering -This is proven through digit shadowing. You have to imagine that the tube is the brain and the y shaped upper tube is the ear and the brain -the line making the Y which crosses the one tube making it shorter is the -in problem: people are aware of their name even in an unattended msg. To resolve these problems> Triestman’s Attenuation model -msg comes in, passed onto attenuator where its job is to lessen the signal of everything we are not paying attention to thus, things we pay attention to comes in strong while everything else is weak -tat information is sent to dictionary unit and it decides what we should be conscious of. } Slide 20: these are not in it -The problem with Triesman’s attenuation model is that Unattended stimuli may be more intense(BANG!) unatatndde stimuli may be more important(your name) unattended stimuli may be more likely (expcting something to happen) Late selection models -stimulus comes in and we have the sensory memeory. Then comes the filter - in another word, we should know the meaning of the unattended word. BECAUSE the filter has been moved to after meaningful semantic, meaning that you comprehend the stimulus. Corteen and wood measured GSR  how much you sweat -measured it in response to city name-shock pairing  you say a certain city and they get a shock. ex. You say Toronto they get a shock.  theory is that if you say Toronto , they will sweat or a form of nervousness due to being classically conditioned. -the test was that after being coinditioned, dichotic is used. So by saying the city on the unattended ear, they test to see if there is an increase in GSR. !!  showed that they did indeed show an increase in GSR therefore, the information must have been processed even when thy did not pay attention to it. MacKay(1873) pg 86 bottom -attended ear: they were standing near the bank -unattanded ear: River” or “money”  presented with sentences that most closely resembled what they heard. -> in this case, it showed that people who in the unattended ear showed that those who heard river said they were standing near the water/river/// something similar and etc.. thus show that the meanin must have been processed and understood. Capacity theories of attention -cognitive
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