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PSY 707 (11)
Chapter 6&7

Chapter 6 & 7 notes

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Ryerson University
PSY 707
Marilyn Hadad

Chapter 6 Notes – Personality and Stress  Biological Predisposition Model  genetic or constitutional (biological makeup) factors influences a person’s psychological, emotional, behavioural and cognitive responses to stress o Personality is a reflection of underlying biological predispositions or temperaments o How a person responds to stress is largely biological determined o Biology may play a role in reaction to stress in the expression of personality but personality plays no direct role in response to stress or health outcomes o Personality influences the likelihood of stress motivated behaviors, + or -  Health related behavior models focus on how personality factors influence health – related behaviors o Certain personality factors predispose us to engage in more health protective behaviors or more health risk ones  Moderation models  personality influences the strength or direction of the relationship between stress and health. It is an intervening variable and can intensify stress or reduce the impact  Personality: overall pattern of thoughts emotions and behaviors that define a person o Temperament: biologically based foundation of personality  Traits: characteristics or elements of personality that predispose a person to respond in certain ways o Sometimes referred to as dispositions  Factor Analysis uses multiple correlations to determine which measured elements cluster together. Common elements that cluster form a factor that is named for the common theme (i.e. timid, modest and reserved = Shyness)  Cattell proposed 16 distinct correlated factors or Source Traits  Eysenck used uncorrelated factors to map personality. Factors are highly independent of each other  Regarded the traits as continuous variable; varying degrees of the trait  Big Three Super traits or personality types called Eysenck’s PEN model: o Psychoticism: characteristic mimic traits by people who are psychotic or who have antisocial behavior; non conformity and social deviance  Negative connotations: aggressive, impersonal, egocentric, unemphatic  Positive: creative, tough minded o Extraversion-introversion: introverts have a lower threshold for activity o Neuroticism: Anxious, depressed, low self-esteem, irrational, moody; Respond with negative emotion more frequent and intense when they experience stress  Outward manifestations of underlying biological differences or temperaments  Some people require more stimulation and others less to reach an optimal zone of functioning  Gray’s Behavioral approach system (BAS)  sensitive to reward and fueled by dopamine; linked to extraversion  Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)  sensitive to punishment or nonreward and driven by norepinephrine; linked to neuroticism  The Big 5 o Openness: creative, imaginative, enjoy variety o Conscientiousness: hard working, responsible, ambitious o Extraversion o Agreeableness: good natured, trusting o Neuroticism  Facets are subcomponents of each factor  Neurotic Cascade: each cascade reinforces the other o Hyperactivity –React to stressors with more negative affect o Differential Exposure – set up situations that lead them to experience more hassles or negative life events then they would otherwise have o Differential Appraisal - likely to appraise situations negatively even if it’s nonthreatening and lack confidence in ability to cope o Mood Spillover - rumination leads to negative emotions and even depressive states; trouble recovering from a stressful encounter o The Sting of Familiar Problems – failed solutions are applied in spite of their ineffectiveness; distorted reasoning and impaired decision making skills hinder ability to use appropriate coping techniques; validates sense of hopelessness and pessimism  High scores on neuroticism have greater chance of developing an internalizing disorder (mood or anxiety disorder)  Greater personal distress more closely lin
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