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Chapter 1

QMS102 Chapter 1: Chapter 1 - Types of Measures


Department
Quantitative Methods
Course Code
QMS 102
Professor
Ayesha Khan
Chapter
1

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Types of Measures
Nominal
Limited number of different values
Each value (category) is a verbal description
There is no order to the values
Even if the categories are identified as numbers, i.e. group1, group 2, mathematical operations are meaningless.
i.e. Colour of hair: blonde, brown, Sex
Ordinal
Limited number of values
Each value is usually a verbal description
There is an order to the values, i.e.: any value is greater or lower than all other values.
Even if the categories are identified as numbers as in tennis rankings, i.e. seed1, seed 2, mathematical operations
are meaningless since distances are not known.
i.e. Position in a company: chair > president > dean > chairman > teacher > student
Old > middle aged > young
Interval
Many numerical values, integer or real
Values are ordered and the numerical nature of the value indicates distance. A 1000m mountain is 250m higher
than a 750m mountain.
Because the numerical values indicate distance, some mathematical operations like addition and subtraction are
allowed.
Because the location of 0 is arbitrary, operations that reference 0, like multiplication and division are meaningless.
If you are on Denver Colorado (at 1000m) next to a 4000m and 2000m mountain, is the 4000m mountain twice as
high as the 2000m mountain?
i.e. height of a mountain or temperature
Ratio
Many numerical values, integer or real
Values are ordered and the numerical nature of the value indicates distance. 0 is in a “natural” location.
All mathematical operations are meaningful. ie: If your friend makes $16/hour and you make $8/hr. then your
friend makes $8/hr more than you (subtraction) also your friend makes twice as much as you (multiplication).
i.e. hourly income or weight
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