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Chapter 1

RMG 914 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Brand Loyalty, Private Label, Brand Management


Department
Retail Management
Course Code
RMG 914
Professor
Donna Smith
Chapter
1

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RMG914 WEEK 1 READING
CHAPTER 1: THE EMERGENCE OF BRANDS
WHAT IS A BRAND?
Brands are complete entities which defy simple definitions
o There is no authority that determines these types of meanings
There is no agreed upon definition
Often we think of brands as logos or registered trademark names
o E.g. coca cola
Brand names, logos or other associations pop up in peoples conversations and appear to be a type of
shorthand for expressing the images they hold in their minds of a brands message or its
features/benefits
People often have emotional relationships with brands
Understanding what a brand is = rich + complex
BRANDS VS. BRANDING
Brands nouns, things, branding is a verb, an action which creates the symbols and elements through
which the brands message is communicated
Nike swoosh a branding element (icon)
o May be created along with a logo/tagline/ad to convey a brands message
These elements exist only to enhance and market the brand and should be expressions
of and consistent with the brands business management strategy
Branding the process of creating and communicating a brand strategy and these elements should
provide the consumer with information regarding the nature of the business
o Without a strategy to integrate the elements and unify the message the branding message will
confuse the consumer and fail in its purpose
BRAND CONCEPTS
Brand in a business context
o Language reflects classic business concepts all of these terms present the brand as a primary
business driver
Brand development the process of developing a name or label into a brand through
first creating brand elements
Brand elements various intellectual property assets such as brand names,
logos and associated identities
Brand building the steps such as awareness to create brand strength or equity
Brand loyalty the most dependable customer purchasers of the brand and its
products
Brand strategy how the brand elements can support business objectives
Brand management a business approach to differentiate, build and measure value of
a brand of the process of managing all of the above
PUBLIC VS PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS
Public brands products are widely distributed and often nationally advertised
Private label products with names and symbols on tags and packaging that are exclusively owned by
a retailer and only available at that retailer
Private label names and symbols placed on products and packaging are not brands no matter how
creative their names or artistic their logos

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Private labels such as the generic names that retailers create for their exclusive use are simply names
or marks of identification until the consumer begins to perceive them as brands
o Brands are purveyors of consistent values, promises and emotional relationships with their
consumers who cocreate the brand by their perception of its importance in their lifestyles
Consumers emotional attachment to the message and their commitment to continuing
to purchase the product results in and reflects brand loyalty
Especially w/ luxury goods high emotional quotient
Attributes that distinguish private labels that are not perceived as national brands from national
brands
o Private labels have no sustainable consumer awareness
Not top of mind, consumers don’t readily recall them
o Private labels cannot command a consistent price in relation to their competitors
o Private labels are seldom on consumers’ pre-shopping list
o Private labels do not readily engender consumer forgiveness for mistakes
o Private labels do not maintain consumer loyalty over time
Have shorter lifespans
Generate lower margins
o Private labels are seldom what 1 recommends to family or friends
THE ORIGINS OF BRANDS AND BRAND MANAGEMENT
Brands have their origins in the universal tendency of human beings to use symbolic communications
2 key roles are witnessed during each (historical) period of interest
o As a conveyor of information (origin/quality) regarding goods/services
o As a conveyor of image or meaning (power, value, and/or personality)
SYMBOLS AND BRANDS
Symbols are not brands
o An attempt to convey an identity and/or confirm a degree of quality represented by the symbol
Brands began as literal works of ownership and authority
o E.g. potters imprint on a clay pot
SYMBOLS AND LUXURY BRANDS
Similar tendency and develop (i.e. as the last heading)
Hermes, Paris in 1837 would emboss heir name under the saddles
o Intent was not to create a brand because the concept as we know it did not exist then
Was meant to inform those who might request the location of the artisan where he
might be found
Thus, began the meaning of a brand as a communication effort in so far as the
“branding”” of the saddle with a distinctive consistent imprint
o Suggest some of the very early and basic origins for today’s brand
strategies
BRANDS AND MARKET DYNAMICS
Brands beginning as communication symbols served a wide variety of purposes in a broad list of
cultures, societies and historical periods
Consumer oriented economics focused on the needs of the end user for building business strategies
Shift from an agrarian society to a manufacturing society
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