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Chapter 1

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Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Andrew Hunter

Chapter 1 Notes: Critical Thinking: The systematic evaluation or formulation of belief, or statements, by rational standards. - A question about the quality of your beliefs is a fundamental concern of critical thinking. Statement: is an assertion that something is or is not the case. Statements or claims are the kind of thing that is either true or false. - Ex: The capital of Canada is Toronto - A triangle has 3 sides Argument: The combinations of statements providing reason for accepting another statement. In other terms an Argument must consist of at least one or more premises and one conclusion. - A Premise is a statement of reason given in support of another statement. - Conclusion: the statement that the premises are intended to support Explanation vs Argument: - An argument gives us reasons for believing that something is the case- that a claim is true or probably true. Arguments have something to prove. - An explanation tells us why or how something is the case. Explanations do not. Indicator Words: that frequently accompanies arguments and signal that a premise or conclusion is present. - Sample Premise indicator: o Because o Om view of the fact o Given that o Seeng that o As o Due to the fact that o Being that o Since o Assuming that o For the reason that o Inasmuch as o As indicated by o For - Conclusion indicators: o Therefore o Thus o Which implies that o Consequently o It follows that o We can conclude that o So o Hence o It must be that o As a result o Which means that o Ergo - Inferences: The logical link between premises and conclusion is what distinguishes arguments from all other kinds of discourse. This process of reasoning from a premise or premises to a conclusion based on those premises is called inference. Chapter 1: Questions 1. What is critical thinking? a. It is an evaluation and formation of a set of beliefs by rationale standards. 2. Is critical thinking primarily concerned with what you think or how you think? a. Critical thinking is primarily related to how you think. 3. Why is critical thinking systematic? a. Is systematic because it involves distinct procedures and methods. 4. According to the text, what does it mean to say that critical thinking is done according to rational standards? a. Critical thinking is done by rational standards because it is based on how and what we believe in. 5. According to the text, how does a lack of critical thinking cause a loss of personal freedom. a. It is because we allow other people determine our beliefs. 6. What does the critical refer to in critical thinking a. It refers to an analysis of one’s belief. 7. In what way can feelings and critical thinking compliment each other? a. It does because w
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