SSH105 Chapter 2 Read.docx

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Ryerson University
Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Joseph Zboralski

SSH Chapter 2 Read: Ways to overcome negative thinking 1. Detect the errors in our thinking 2. Restrain the attitudes and feelings 3. Achieve a level of objectivity that makes critical thinking possible. Barriers that affect our critical thinking - How we thinking ( cause by peers/groups) - What we think Both barriers are affected when fear, attitudes, motivations and desires Self interest is not critical thinking! ^Self – above intelligence/ talent/ integrity/ power ^ We like others to think that as well When we are critically thinking we must NOT - Get personal Passionate holding on opinion leads to lack of reason to support the opinion Passionate can be define as anger, fear *To surpass this emotion, pause and think Ways critical thinking can be undermined - Ensure nothing has been left out - Don’t think about the evidence for but also think about the evidence against Group Pressure = not thinking straight but someone thinking for you - Group pressure throws us off our beliefs and influence us on some beliefs that we don’t 100% agree on - Groups pressure you to make you think it’s the best Peer Pressure - pressured by a group, but when one group tries to support a conclusion the mere assertion is popularity of a belief, known as appeal to popularity (also known as appeal to the masses) “Behavoiur of the group alone is taken as reason to support a claim. Example: Sam lives on campus and is far away from her high school friends and family. At the university she wants new friends so she decides to join a group. Through her time there she meets a lot of great people and they have similar interest but one topic where their differences aside was the fact of abortion. She believed in abortion while the entire group believed against abortion. During a debate Sam kept her mouth shut about it because she was afraid of losing them or getting kicked from the group. So whenever the topic appears she wouldn’t say anything and just go along with them. Overtime she would fade from her beliefs and would accept the belief of the group even though deep down she did not feel right. Another type of group pressure is sterotyping drawing conclusions about people without sufficient reasons. Example: As we were younger sometimes our parents would warn u
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