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SSH 205 (13)
Chapter 2

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Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 205
Scott Clark

SSH 205: Chapter 2 A. Banking • Student is given information that he or she later gives back in more or less the same form • There is a deposit, followed by a withdraw • Repetition, imitation, and memorization can develop our minds and help us retain information, but it’s possible to repeat what we don’t understand, to merely accept instead of asking questions and to never learn how to think about all taken in • Paraphrasing something is not the same as summarizing it or generalizing it • Summarizing and generalizing are further removed from the language of the reading than its paraphrasing • Paraphrase takes the language of the reading and restates it in other words • You can read more actively by trying to figure out from the use of language in the reading what its author is worried about and what he/she is trying to “fix” B. Generalizing • Reducing complex events, theories, books, or speeches to a reasonably accurate summarizing statement • To understand a subject, we need to get past our first broad (usually evaluative) response in order to discover the particulars that best explain the character as whole • Generalizations are weak ideas, ones that are born prematurely; they always need incubation time in order to gain clarity, precision, and strength • Press yourself to trace general impressions back to the particulars that caused them • Abstraction ladder: the more general and vague the word, the higher its position on the abstraction ladder o Ex: “Animal” is higher than “mammal”, which is higher than “cow” • Aconcrete word is one that appeals to the senses; abstract words are not available to our senses o Ex: “Submarine” is concrete (mental image), “Peace-keeping officer” is abstract (gives us a concept but abstract thought) C. Judging • We evaluate everything and to do so very quickly • Its natural, “knee-jerk thinking” • We judge everything and come to quick conclusions, but we should try to lay out our criteria for our judgment so others can see why we believe that • Everyone judges differently, we all have different biases, thoughts, beliefs, e
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