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Chapter 11

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 11 Sex and Gender

12 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 103
Professor
Sal Guzzo

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Chapter 11: Sex and Gender
Sex: The Biological Dimension
Gender: used to refer to the distinctive culturally created qualities of men and
women (masculinity and femininity)
Sex: refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males
Mother contributes and X chromosome
Father either X (female) or Y (male)
Primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process
Secondary sex characteristics: the physical traits (other than reproductive
organs) that identify an individuals sex
Hermaphrodites/Transsexuals
Hermaphrodite: a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or
incomplete
Combination of genitalia
Transsexual: a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the
wrong sex
Western societies, only 2 sexes
Other societies have 3, men, women, and berdaches
Berdaches (hijras, xaniths): biological males who behave, dress, and work and are
treated in most respects as women
Transvestite: a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives a man but does
not alter the genitalia
Some think both transsexuality and homosexuality have a common prenatal cause
Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation: refers to an individuals preference for emotional-sexual
relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex
(homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)
www.notesolution.com
Some scientists believe it is from birth, some think that has both biological and
social components
Homosexual/Gay: males who prefer same-sex relationships
Lesbian: used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships
Three criteria for identifying people as homosexual or bisexual
oSexual attraction to persons of ones own gender
oSexual involvement with one or more persons of ones own gender
oSelf-identification as gay, lesbian, or bisexual
Transgender: describe individuals whose appearance, behaviour, or self
identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression
Homophobia: extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others
who are perceived as not being heterosexual
Gender: The Cultural Dimension
Gender: refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between
females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with
femininity and masculinity
Social and cultural more important than biological
Gendered: people continually distinguish between males and females and evaluate
them differently
Gender role: refers to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially
defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process
Gender identity: is a persons perception of the self as a female or male
Body consciousness: is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body; it
also includes social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge
Microlevel analysis of gender focuses on how individuals learn gender roles and
acquire a gender identity
Macrolevel analysis of gender examines structural features, external to the
individual that perpetuate gender inequality
www.notesolution.com
Gendered institutions: gender is one of the major ways by which social life is
organized in all sectors of society
Gender belief system: includes all of the ideas regarding masculine and feminine
attributes that are held to be valid in a society
The Social Significance of Gender
Gender stereotypes hold that men and women are inherently different in attributes,
behaviour, and aspirations
Men: strong, rational, dominant, independent, and less concerned with their
appearance
Women: stereotyped as weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent and anxious about
their appearance
Anorexia: a person has lost at least 25% of body weight due to a compulsive fear of
becoming fat
Bulimia: person binges by consuming large quantities of food and then purges the
food by induced vomiting, laxatives or fasting
Activity bulimia: excessive exercising, usually attached to feelings of guilt about
eating
Obesity: individuals are 20% or more above their ideal weight, as established by the
medical profession
Bodybuilding: process of deliberately cultivating an increase in mass and strength
of the skeletal muscle s by means of lifting and pushing weights
Sexism
Sexism: is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed
superiority of the other sex
Three components
oNegative attitudes toward women
oStereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 11: Sex and Gender Sex: The Biological Dimension Gender: used to refer to the distinctive culturally created qualities of men and women (masculinity and femininity) Sex: refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males Mother contributes and X chromosome Father either X (female) or Y (male) Primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process Secondary sex characteristics: the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individuals sex HermaphroditesTranssexuals Hermaphrodite: a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete Combination of genitalia Transsexual: a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex Western societies, only 2 sexes Other societies have 3, men, women, and berdaches Berdaches (hijras, xaniths): biological males who behave, dress, and work and are treated in most respects as women Transvestite: a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives a man but does not alter the genitalia Some think both transsexuality and homosexuality have a common prenatal cause Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: refers to an individuals preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality) www.notesolution.com Some scientists believe it is from birth, some think that has both biological and social components HomosexualGay: males who prefer same-sex relationships Lesbian: used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships Three criteria for identifying people as homosexual or bisexual o Sexual attraction to persons of ones own gender o Sexual involvement with one or more persons of ones own gender o Self-identification as gay, lesbian, or bisexual Transgender: describe individuals whose appearance, behaviour, or self identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression Homophobia: extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual Gender: The Cultural Dimension Gender: refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity Social and cultural more important than biological Gendered: people continually distinguish between males and females and evaluate them differently Gender role: refers to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process Gender identity: is a persons perception of the self as a female or male Body consciousness: is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body; it also includes social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge Microlevel analysis of gender focuses on how individuals learn gender roles and acquire a gender identity Macrolevel analysis of gender examines structural features, external to the individual that perpetuate gender inequality www.notesolution.com
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