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Chapter 11

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 11 Sex and Gender

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SOC 103
Sal Guzzo

Chapter 11: Sex and Gender Sex: The Biological Dimension Gender: used to refer to the distinctive culturally created qualities of men and women (masculinity and femininity) Sex: refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males Mother contributes and X chromosome Father either X (female) or Y (male) Primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process Secondary sex characteristics: the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individuals sex HermaphroditesTranssexuals Hermaphrodite: a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete Combination of genitalia Transsexual: a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex Western societies, only 2 sexes Other societies have 3, men, women, and berdaches Berdaches (hijras, xaniths): biological males who behave, dress, and work and are treated in most respects as women Transvestite: a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives a man but does not alter the genitalia Some think both transsexuality and homosexuality have a common prenatal cause Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: refers to an individuals preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality) www.notesolution.com Some scientists believe it is from birth, some think that has both biological and social components HomosexualGay: males who prefer same-sex relationships Lesbian: used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships Three criteria for identifying people as homosexual or bisexual o Sexual attraction to persons of ones own gender o Sexual involvement with one or more persons of ones own gender o Self-identification as gay, lesbian, or bisexual Transgender: describe individuals whose appearance, behaviour, or self identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression Homophobia: extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual Gender: The Cultural Dimension Gender: refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity Social and cultural more important than biological Gendered: people continually distinguish between males and females and evaluate them differently Gender role: refers to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process Gender identity: is a persons perception of the self as a female or male Body consciousness: is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body; it also includes social conditions in society that contribute to this self-knowledge Microlevel analysis of gender focuses on how individuals learn gender roles and acquire a gender identity Macrolevel analysis of gender examines structural features, external to the individual that perpetuate gender inequality www.notesolution.com
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