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Chapter 1

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 1

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SOC 103
Sal Guzzo

Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective Putting Social Life into Perspective Sociology: Is the systematic study of human society and social interaction Systematic study because sociologists apply both theoretical perspectives and research methods (or orderly approaches) to examinations of social behaviour Sociologists study group life and how group life is affected by individuals Why Study Sociology? Behaviour is largely shaped by the groups to which we belong and the society in which we live Society: is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations Global interdependence: a relationship in which the lives of all people are closely intertwined and any one nations problems are part of a larger global problem Peter Berger, sociological inquiry helps us see that things are not what they seem Commonsense knowledge: guides ordinary conduct in everyday life Myth: is a popular but false notion that may be used, either intentionally or unintentionally, to perpetuate certain beliefs or theories even in the light of conclusive evidence to the contrary Sociologists dont listen to myths, use scientific methods to come to conclusions Look for patterns in individuals, which therefore can be looked at more other individuals The Sociological Imagination Sociological imagination: the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Helps us distinguish between personal troubles and social (or public) issues Personal troubles: private problems of individuals and the networks of people with whom they associate regularly www.notesolution.com Public issues: are matters beyond an individuals control that we caused by problems at the societal level Existing sociological theory and research provide the foundation for sociological thinking, but must reach beyond past studies that have focused primarily on North America to develop a more comprehensive global approach High-income countries: are nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income High quality of life, lower death rate Middle-income countries: are nations with industrializing economies, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income Low-income countries: are primarily agrarian, with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income Canada relies on other nations, selling and buying goods. Immigrants add to intellectual capital Race: is a term used by many people to specify groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics such as skin colour, but no pure racial types exist and most sociologists consider the concept of race to be a social construction used to justify existing social inequalities Ethnicity: refers to a groups cultural heritage or identify; it is based on factors such as language or country of origin Class: is the relative location of a person or group within the larger society; it is based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources Sex: refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males Gender: refers to the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with sex differences, referred to as femininity and masculinity The Development of Sociological Thinking Early thinkers focused their thoughts on what they believed society ought to be like, rather than describing how society was www.notesolution.com
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