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Chapter 4

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 4

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SOC 103
Sal Guzzo

Chapter 4: Socialization Why is Socialization Important? Socialization: the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical mental, and social skills needed for survival in society Enables each of us to develop our human potential and learn the ways of thinking, talking, and acting that are essential for social living First three years of life, begin to develop a unique identity as well as the abilities to manipulate things and to walk Socialization essential for the survival and stability of society Functionalist perspective, individual conformity to existing norms is not taken for granted, rather, basic individual needs and desires must be balanced against the needs of the social structure Socialization process effective, people conform to the norms of society because they believe that doing so is the best course of action Culture, subculture, and unique experiences make up who you are Human Development: Biology and Society What does it mean to be human? o Conscious of ourselves ad individuals with unique identities, personality, and relationships with others o Have ideas emotions and values o Capacity to think and make rational decisions Humans differ from nonhuman animals because we lack instincts and must rely on learning for our survival Human is product of o Biology o Society www.notesolution.com o Personal experiences Sociologies focus on how humans design their own culture and transmit it from generation to generation through socialization Sociobiologists assert that nature in the form of our genetic makeup is a major factor in shaping human behaviour Sociobiology: is the systematic study of how biology affects social behaviour Wilson, genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social behaviour such as war and peace, envy and concern for others, and competition and cooperation Sociologists disagree with the emphasis on bio Social influence= nurture Social environment probably has a greater effect than heredity on the way we develop and the way we act Biological and emotional needs are related in a complex equation Social Isolation and Maltreatment Isolation and Nonhuman Primates Psychologies Harlows took infant rhesus monkeys from their mothers and isolated them in separate cages. Each cage had fake mother, one made up with wire with bottle, other one was made of cloth, no bottle. Babies liked cloth mother, when really needed to eat, went to the wire monkey Socialization important in first 6 months, in the test, when monkeys integrated, didnt interact well Isolated Children Anna: mother didnt care for her. Couldnt walk, talk, eat, clean. When integrated and socialized, was able to do these things Genie: straight jacketed, beaten, had a tough time socializing Child Maltreatment www.notesolution.com Child maltreatment and Child Abuse: the violence, mistreatment, or neglect that a child may experience while in the care of someone he or she trusts or depends on (parent, relative, caregiver) Types of abuse o Physical abuse o Sexual abuse or exploitation o Neglect o Emotional abuse Neglect most frequent form of child abuse Child neglect: occurs when a childs basic needs-including emotional warmth and security, adequate shelter, food, health care, education, clothing, and protection- are not met, regardless of the cause Child abuse is linked to inequalities in our society and the power imbalance that exists between adults and children Children dependent on their abusers, little control over situation Abuse may increase on social factors like racism, sexism, homophobia, poverty, and social isolation Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization: are the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society The Family Family most important agent of socialization in all societies As soon as we are born, our families begin to transmit cultural and social values to us Functionalist perspective emphasize that families serve important functions in society because they are the primary focus for the procreation and socialization of children Families primary source of emotional support www.notesolution.com
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