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Chapter 4

SOC 103 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Child Neglect, Child Abuse, Psychological Abuse

14 pages62 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 103
Professor
Sal Guzzo
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4: Socialization
Why is Socialization Important?
Socialization: the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals
acquire a self-identity and the physical mental, and social skills needed for survival
in society
Enables each of us to develop our human potential and learn the ways of thinking,
talking, and acting that are essential for social living
First three years of life, begin to develop a unique identity as well as the abilities to
manipulate things and to walk
Socialization essential for the survival and stability of society
Functionalist perspective, individual conformity to existing norms is not taken for
granted, rather, basic individual needs and desires must be balanced against the
needs of the social structure
Socialization process effective, people conform to the norms of society because they
believe that doing so is the best course of action
Culture, subculture, and unique experiences make up who you are
Human Development: Biology and Society
What does it mean to be human?
oConscious of ourselves ad individuals with unique identities, personality, and
relationships with others
oHave ideas emotions and values
oCapacity to think and make rational decisions
Humans differ from nonhuman animals because we lack instincts and must rely on
learning for our survival
Human is product of
oBiology
oSociety
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oPersonal experiences
Sociologies focus on how humans design their own culture and transmit it from
generation to generation through socialization
Sociobiologists assert that nature in the form of our genetic makeup is a major factor
in shaping human behaviour
Sociobiology: is the systematic study of how biology affects social behaviour
Wilson, genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social behaviour such as war
and peace, envy and concern for others, and competition and cooperation
Sociologists disagree with the emphasis on bio
Social influence= nurture
Social environment probably has a greater effect than heredity on the way we
develop and the way we act
Biological and emotional needs are related in a complex equation
Social Isolation and Maltreatment
Isolation and Nonhuman Primates
Psychologies Harlows took infant rhesus monkeys from their mothers and isolated
them in separate cages. Each cage had fake mother, one made up with wire with
bottle, other one was made of cloth, no bottle.
Babies liked cloth mother, when really needed to eat, went to the wire monkey
Socialization important in first 6 months, in the test, when monkeys integrated,
didnt interact well
Isolated Children
Anna: mother didnt care for her. Couldnt walk, talk, eat, clean. When integrated
and socialized, was able to do these things
Genie: straight jacketed, beaten, had a tough time socializing
Child Maltreatment
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Child maltreatment and Child Abuse: the violence, mistreatment, or neglect
that a child may experience while in the care of someone he or she trusts or depends
on (parent, relative, caregiver)
Types of abuse
oPhysical abuse
oSexual abuse or exploitation
oNeglect
oEmotional abuse
Neglect most frequent form of child abuse
Child neglect: occurs when a childs basic needs-including emotional warmth and
security, adequate shelter, food, health care, education, clothing, and protection- are
not met, regardless of the cause
Child abuse is linked to inequalities in our society and the power imbalance that
exists between adults and children
Children dependent on their abusers, little control over situation
Abuse may increase on social factors like racism, sexism, homophobia, poverty, and
social isolation
Agents of Socialization
Agents of socialization: are the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what
we need to know in order to participate in society
The Family
Family most important agent of socialization in all societies
As soon as we are born, our families begin to transmit cultural and social values to
us
Functionalist perspective emphasize that families serve important functions in
society because they are the primary focus for the procreation and socialization of
children
Families primary source of emotional support
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