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SOC 103 (124)
Chapter 9


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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 9 KEY TERMS Term Definition Minority A definable category of ppl who are socially disadvantaged Race Historically, a group of people who were physically/genetically distinguished from other groups Racialization The process of attributing complex characteristics (e.g: intelligence to asian people) to racial categories Internalized Racialization Internalization of racial categorizations into a person’s identity Ethnicity A multi-dimensional concept that includes one’s minority/majority status, ancestry, language, religious affiliation Ethnic group A collection of ppl who identify w/ eachother n share a common culture Prejudice A negative judgment about a person/group that is irrational, long-lasting, n not based on fact Ecological Fallacy Drawing conclusions about individ attributes from data gathered from an entire group Exception Fallacy Drawing conclusions about an entire group based on observations of individ. Stereotype A stable and sweeping generalization about a category of ppl Racism An ideology that maintains that one “race” is inherently superior to another Democratic Racism A system that advocates equality but in fact perpetuates minority differentiation and oppression Discrimination Actions that deny/grant advantages to members of a particular group Direct Institutional Occurs when an institution employs policies/practices that are discriminatory Discrimination against person/group Indirect Institutional Occurs when an action produces uneven results on a group/person because of an Discrimination unlawful criterion, but lacks the intent of being discriminatory Scapegoat theory Asserts that prejudice/discrim. originate in the frustrations of people who want to blame someone else for their problems Authoritarian Personality Asserts that extreme prejudice is a personality trait of people who strongly Theory believe in following cultural norms, traditions, and values Culture Theory Asserts that some prejudice is healthy and part of all cultures Social Distance Bogardus’s concept of the relative distance ppl feel btw/ themselves n other racial/ethnic groups Culture of Prejudice A value system that promotes prejudice, discrimination and oppression Dual Labour Market Theory Asserts that modern societies have two distinct labour markets (primary/secondary) Marxist Exploitation Theory Asserts that the powerful economic elite promotes and benefits from prejudice/discrimination Selective Perception The process whereby ppl see only those things that reinforce their preconceived perceptions Contact Hypothesis The proposal that prejudiced attitude can decline w/ inner-group contact Post-colonial Theory An approach that examines the ways in which the colonial past has shaped the social, political, economic experiences of a colonized country Genocide The intentional extermination of a category of people by another group of people Segregation The formal physical/social separation of dominant and minority groups Separatism Voluntary structural/cultural isolation by minority groups from the dominant group Assimilation A ione-way process that occurs when a minority group sheds its differences and assumes the traits of the dominant groups Cultural Pluralism The retention of minority groups cultural identities and the promotion of cultural, ethnic, and racial diversity by the larger society Melting Pot The blending of new immigrants traditions and cultural identity into dominant American culture Charter Groups French/English in Canada, Porter recognized the important role these groups played in history and contemporary social/political development Quiet Revolution A movement in Quebec during 1960s, when political/religious traditions were challenged, the French struggled for greater economic, political, and cultural equality CHAPTER 9 KEY FACTS Oppression Culminated effect of discrimination:  Consistent  Produces groups of people  Non accidental  Leads to double-bind situations  Both hyper visible and invisible Privilege  “white privilege is like an invisible backpack”  Visible heavy backpack (oppressed people)  White people don’t understand their privilege to make them understand oppressed people (white passports are more invisible)  Moments of White Privilege: o I can if I wish arrange to be in company of people of my race most of the time o If I need to move, I can be pretty sure of renting/purchasing housing in an area which I can afford/want to live o I can be pretty sure my neighbors would be nice to me o I can go shopping alone without being followed/harrassed o I can turn on the TV and see my kind of people being widely represented o When I am told about our national heritage, I am shown that white people made it what it is o I can wear second hand things without having people say I’m poor Race and Dichotomous Thinking  Non-white groups are understood in opposition to a white norm  Dichotomous Thinking: o Unequal power relations o Unstable o Require borderwork(discrimination/racisim Canada is white, all other races are stealing their jobs) to uphold systems of inequality o Example: University BC is “too asian, the expectations are too high” Intersectionality Understanding relationship through various systems of power and equality Example: AXIS OF RACE versus gender/class/ability/sexuality/global location  “I am both privileged and oppressed by the axis I teeter along. It’s important to recognize our sites of privilege, not just our sites of oppression acknowledging your privilege precents you from shirking the responsibility to act” What’s a Minority, Ethniticity, Race, Racialization: Minority  Less access to resources  De-emphasizes question about biological differences  powerlessness Often experience prejudice/discrimination  Ethnicity  Language, religion  Share common culture, art forms, music, traditions, beliefs  Irish Canadian, Chinese candian, Italian Canadian, Vietnamese canadian Race  Skin colour, hair texture, facial features  Caucasoid/nergoid/mongoloid Racialization  Black people are athletic
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