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SOC 103 (124)
Chapter 8

CHAPTER 8.pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 103
Professor
Tonya Davidson
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 8 KEY TERMS Term Definition Sex A determination of male/female on the basis of a set of socially agreed-upon biological criteria Gender Social distinctions btw/ masculinity & feminity Intersexed individuals Ppl born with ambiguous genitalia Gender relations Organizing principles that shape and order interactions btw/ as well as the relative social importance of women & men Transgender Range of people who do not fit into normative constructions of sex & gender Transsexual Sex reassignment, includes surgery Hegemonic masculinity The normative ideal of dominant masculinity Emphasized femininity The normative ideal of femininity, based on compliance w/ women’s subordination to men Glass ceiling The notion that women can see the top of the corporate ladder but cannot reach it because a glass ceiling stops their process Occupational sex segregation The ongoing concentration of women in “traditional occupations” Exchange theory The assertion that power flows from the resources that a member brings to a relationship Sexual identity Broad term that can include our masculinity/femininity, our knowledge of our bodies, our sexual histories, and our sexual preferences Sexual orientation One’s sexual and emotional attraction to a person of particular sex Heterosexism The holding up of heterosexuality as the ideal and normal sexuality, rendering all sexualities abnormal and deviant Heterosexual One who is attracted to members of opp. Sex Pansexuality Romantic and sexual desire for people regardless of their gender identity or biological sex Commodification The process whereby goods/services become available for purchase in the market Sexual scripts Cultural expectations about appropriate sexuality that are learned through social interaction CHAPTER 8 KEY FACTS Gender: Sex/Gender Distinction SEX GENDER - Rooted in biology - Socially constructed characteristics - Physical selves associated w/ sexes - Body (male/female) - Bodies are socially produced as masculine/feminine Sociological Approaches to Gender Functionalism women/men perform separate, specialized, complementary roles to maintain cohesiveness w/in families/wider society  Men instrumental role provider  Women expressive role nurture, support  Reduces confusion regarding gender expectations Conflict Theory gender stratification in capitalist societies direct result of accumulation of private property  Institution of monogamy has little to do with LOVE, but w/ ensuring paternity to determine inheritance lines Symbolic Interactionism meanings of male/female masculinity/femininity  Gender created through social interactions, role-taking  Children learn gender-related behaviours through social institutions school, family, peers, mass media Feminism  women live under conditions of subordination/oppression  View gender as socially constructed concept that has important/detrimental consequences in lives of men/women Predominant Gender Story 1) bodies born in 2 types: male/female 2) bodies gendered masculine/feminine 3) bodies attracted to opposite type bodies (heterosexuality) 4) reproduction of bodies and gender  challenge to this idea (bi-sexual/transgendered/ppl who choose not to have children/queer community) Is produced/reproduced:  wherever gendering happens  (+) baby showers/weddings or (-) hate crimes/gay bashing  through borderwork  punishments against people who do not conform to ideologies and privileges to who are. Patriarchal Dividend “the advantage of men as a group from maintaining an unequal gender order”  Ideal Man  always come out on top, CEO, ideal husband  Ideal Woman  can’t be CEO and the ideal women at the same time Dichotomous Thinking BINARIES: black/white, male/female, heterosexual/homosexual not equal in power not stable, require borderwork (social sanctions that ensure that these gender ideals seem natural, universal, timeless  Gender Dichotomy MEN WOMEN - rational - emotional - physically strong - physically weak - gain wisdom w/ age - lose sex appeal (value) w/age - independent - dependent (on men for power, validation)  Hegemonic Masculinity o Why ‘Hegemonic’?  Not based on force, but sometimes in relation to force (gay bashing)  Does not eliminate, but subordinates other forms of masculinity o Traits: aggressiveness, strength drive, ambition o Whiteness, heterosexuality, middle class o Manhood requires men to be successful, capable, reliable  “a man in power, with power, of power”  Emphasized Femininity o Why ‘Emphasized’ and not ‘Hegemonic’?  Limited power of women offers limited access to “institutional power relations over other women”  Difficulty of women exerting power is the fact that key to “emphasized femininity” is the idea of compliance & submission o Subordination to men o Oriented to obliging men’s interests/desires (e.g: stilettos) o Ideal that women should try to achieve:  Supportiveness, enthusiasm, sexual attractiveness Gender Ideals  Idea Man o White, in control, well-educated, rich o Different types form a hierarchy o Differences not a matter of free choice o Differences created by race/ethnicity/class/age/sexual orientation  Ideal Woman o Nurturing o Attractiveness o Does not have power o Supports man who works o Paradox
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