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Chapter 4


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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 4 KEY TERMS Term Definition Personality An individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviours/feelings Nature vs. nurture The debate over whether biological force/environment define the person we become socialization The life-long process which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning members in society Social interaction The ways in which people interact in social settings while recognizing each person’s subjective experiences/intentions Sociobiology The science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behaviour Self One’s identity comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interaction and that defines one’s self image Self-image An introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as I Mead’s term for that element of self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive, and unpredictable Me Mead’s term for the socialized element of self Significant others People we want to impress or gain approval from Generalized other A compilation of attributes associated w/ avg. member of society; represents an individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave w/in certain socially accepted guidelines and rules Role-taking Assuming the position of another in order to better understand that person’s perspective Primary socialization Occurs when ppl learn the attitudes, values, and appropriate behaviours for individuals in their culture Secondary socialization Follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific groups w/ defined roles and expectations Defence mechanisms Freud’s term to describe the ways in which individuals manage painful memories id Freud’s term for an individual’s biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification Superego Freud’s term for all the norms, values, and morals that are learned through socialization Ego Freud’s term for the intermediary btw/ the id and the superego that provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wants Agents of socialization Invids,groups, and social institutions that together help people become functioning members of society Gender stereotyping The assignment of a set of beliefs to men and women, that are not based on fact Socio-economic status Social status as determined by family income, parents education level/occupations, and social standing w/in community. Cultural capital Social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained from one’s family and help one succeed in life Peer groups Consist of people who are closely related in age and share similar interests Hidden curriculum The unconscious, informal, and unwritten norms & rules that reinforce & maintain social conventions Life course Socialization that occurs throughout one’s adult life Birth cohort All the people who are born during a given period of time, therefore experience historical events at the same points in their lives Empty nest syndrome The depression that mothers experience when their children have left home Gerontology Scientific study of old age and aging Re-socialization The profound change or complete transformation of a person’s personality as a result of being placed in a situation/environment dedicated to changing one’s previous identity Total institutions A setting in which people are isolated from society and supervised by an administrative staff Mortifications of the self The first stage of resocialization process, in which a person’s existing identity is stripped away CHAPTER 4 KEY FACTS Socialization “the lifelong process which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning members of society” Types of Socialization Primary Socialization (birth – adolescence)  intentional (eat/sit/poo)  unintentional (pick up words/actions) Secondary Socialization (status challenged)  widow/Job promotion  adjust to/learning Anticipatory Socialization (prepare for new role)  parenting/training for military Re-socialization (practices of helping people re-enter society)  leaving jail/leaving a cult Becoming Human  Nature Argument: Being born YOU o evolutionary forces led to women/men having very different brain structures that influence house each respond to the world around them o sociobiology uses evolutionary theory to examine biological roots of social behavior o principles of Darwinian inheritance to show how human behaviors are selected for and passed on to generations o young men’s risky behavior demonstrates their vitality and invincibility which are evolved attributes intended to attract women  Nurture Argument: Learning to be YOU o we became the people we are through social interaction is what happens when young children are isolated from human contact (isolates) o effects: no human contact means not able to walk, talk or any basic intellectual capacity o our genet
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