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Chapter 1


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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 1 KEY TERMS Term Definition Sociology the systematic study of human groups and their interactions Sociological perspective view of society based on dynamic relationships btw/ people and larger social network in which we all live Personal trouble personal challenges that require invid. solutions Social issues caused by larger social factors that req’ collective solutions Quality of mind Mill’s term for ability to view personal circumstance w/in a social context Sociological imagination Mills’ term: ability to perceive how dynamic social forces influence individ. lives Positivism a theoretical approach that considers all understanding to be based on science Macro sociology study of society as a whole Micro sociology focuses on individ. small groups and how they behave in certain face to face social networks Symbolic interactionism a perspective asserting that people and societies are defined and created through interactions of individs Organic analogy the belief that society is like an organism w/ interdependent and interrelated parts Social facts general social features that exist on their own and are independent of individ. manifestations Manifest functions intended consequences of an action or social pattern Latent functions UN-intended consequences of an action or social pattern Dysfunction process or element of society that creates a disruption or instability in a social system Relations of production relationship btw/ workers and owners Proletariat workers, who don’t own land Bourgoise Rich owners Exploitation difference btw/ what workers are paid and the wealth they create for the owner Alienation Marxist concept (workers lack connection to what they produce and become separated from themselves and other workers) False consciousness belief in or support of the system that oppresses you Class consciousness recognition of domination and oppression and collective action to address it Verstehen Weber’s term for a deep understanding or interpretation of subjective social meanings Ascribed status attributes (advntgs/disvntsgs) assigned at birth (e.g: sex) Achieved status attributes developed throughout life as a result of effort or skill (e.g: course grades) Sympathetic Cooley’s concept of the value of putting yourself into other person’s shoes and seeing introspection the world as they do Looking-glass-self Cooley’s belief that we develop our self-image through the cues we receive from others Hegemony domination through ideological control and consent Discourse system of meaning that governs how we think at, and speak about particular things or issues Discipline we become motivated to produce particular realities Social Theorists Coined Terms & Ideas August Compte  Positivism Charles Wright Mills  Quality of mind  Social imagination Peter Berger  General in particular  Strange in familiar Emile Durkheim  Social facts  Social Solidarity Robert K. Merton  Manifest functions  Latent functions  Dysfunctions Karl Marx &  Proletariat Friedrich Engels  Bourgoise  False consciousness  Class consciousness  Alienation  Exploitation Max Weber  Verstehen Jean-Jacques Rousseau  Natural or physical inequality  Moral or political inequality Charles Horton Cooley  Sympathetic introspection  Looking-glass-self CHAPTER 1 KEY FACTS Society “the sociologist thinks of ‘society’ as denoting a large complex of human relationships, or to put it in more technical language, as referring to a system of interaction” –Peter Berger The Social “as one in which people orient their actions towards one another. The web meanings, expectations and conduct resulting from such mutual orientation is the stuff of sociological analysis” –Peter Berger The Sociological Imagination What makes us engage the sociological imagination?  minority status  gender  socio-economic status  family structure  urban-rural differences CHARLES WRIGHT MILLS  being able to think about personal troubles in relation to social issues, caused by larger social factors  things change over time, making connections with people and history (different generations are shaped by different orientations)  situate the self individual into society failures/success o (rent  housing) o (mid-term grade  exam error by professor) The Sociological Perspective PETER BERGER  Seeing the general in the particular  ”what’s up with that?” (lemonade stand)  bum asking for spare change, a specific and particular incident. To see the general you have to recognize that there are many more you don’t see.  Seeing the strange in the familiar  thinking about what’s familiar and seeing it as strange  why do they give peanuts on the airplane? The Origins of Sociology: Three Revolutions  SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION o Galileo, Newton, Copernicus o Renaissance  Enlightenment o AUGUST COMTE coined the term sociology and his idea was POSITIVISM  All understanding to be based on science  Society would be better run if we used positivism to make our decisions on social policy  Believed that sociologists would make best leaders since they
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