Textbook Notes (363,084)
Canada (158,183)
Sociology (534)
SOC 103 (110)
Chapter 2


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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 2 KEY TERMS Term Definition qualitative Numerical data quantitative Non-numerical data, researcher is the research instrument variables Characteristics of objects, people or groups of people can be measured inductive logic A way of reasoning that moves from data to the formation of theory deductive logic A way of reasoning that moves data from theory to the formulation of hypothesis for testing scientific method Systematic approach researchers follow in their quest for answers to a research problem hypothesis A tentative statement about particular relationship (btw/ objects, people, group of ppl) that can be tested empirically independent variable Researchers manipulate to create some change in the DV dependent variable Condition is reliant on the nature of the IV operational definition Description of how a variable is measured close-ended questions List several possible answers participant observation Active participation by a researcher in research setting known as field work, ethnography non-participant Direct observation by researcher observation triangulation An approach in which more than one research method is used in an attempt to fully understand an area of study participatory action Combines in action – orientated goal and the participation of research subject in research the project’s design or implementation secondary analysis Involving analysis of existing data or archival/current CHAPTER 2 KEY FACTS Connecting Theory and Research A sociologist’s theoretical orientation will influence the type of research Q’s asked and how they are asked  Functionalists  smooth functioning of society  Conflict Theorists  concerned w/ struggle over scarce resources by diff. groups in society and how elites use power to control the less powerful  Symbolic Interactionists  face-to-face encounters and the meanings that people use to facilitate social life  Feminists  examining issues pertaining to gender/inequality TOPIC: FAMILIES o Functionalist  interested in functions of families w/in society  Research Q: “What are the consequences of changing family forms for the smooth running of society?” o Conflict Theorists  interested in how families cope w/ economic strain of our current times  Research Project: examine government/corporate policies that disadvantage families (the degree to which a govm’t provides affordable daycare to allow working- class parents to work) o Symbolic Interactionists  interaction patterns w/in families or how labels are used (and impact) family members  Research Project: examine how immigrants negotiate identity w/in family and how they adapt to their new cultural surroundings (interplay btw/ immigrant parents and their Canadian born children as each adapts to Canadian culture) o Feminist Theorists  micro/macro approach, examine child-rearing practices used in Canadian families to see whether they promote gender equality/inequality  Research Project: investigate the incidence of family violence as a gendered issue in Canadian families Distinctions between Quantitative/Qualitative Researches QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE Research Q’s Begins w/ HYPOTHESIS & WHY Q’s Begins w/ WHAT/HOW Q’s (relationships btw/ variables) Purpose Statement To EXPLAIN phenomena, to test hypothesis To EXPLORE phenomena  DEDUCTIVEreasoning  INDUCTIVE reasoning Scale LARGER sample sizes SMALLER sample sizes Methods Surveys, statistical analysis, content analysis Ethnographic methods, participant observation, in-depth interviewing, content analysis Other  Numerical  Non-numerical  Statistical trends  Behaviours and patterns  Less expensive  More expensive  Less time-consuming  More time-consuming Example Q’s How many TVs does one household have? How does participation in
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