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Canada (155,988)
Sociology (523)
SOC 103 (101)
Chapter 5


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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 5: DEVIANCE, CRIME & REGULATION Module 5.1: Crime & Deviance CRIMINOLOGY & SOCIOLOGY OF THE LAW  Criminology scientific approach of crime causation, crime prevention, punishment of offenders - Process of making laws, breaking laws, reacting towards breaking of laws  Sociology of law looks at how law and justice system are socially constructed  Rule of law no person is above law, and that state power should not be exercised arbitrarily DEFINING CRIME & DEVIANCE Crime behaviours and actions requiring social control and social intervention, codified in law What is Deviance? ATTITUDE (homophobic/racist what you believe in) BEHAVIOURS (crimes how you act) CONDITION (mental health condition something about an individual’s physical being) that violates social norms in the society which it occurs INTEGRATED TYPOLOGY OF DEVIANCE Negative evaluation NEGATIVE DEVIANCE RATE BUSTING Underconformity Overconformity DEVIANCE ADMIRATION POSITIVE DEVIANCE Positive evaluation (complete chart) DEFINING DEVIANCE  Definitions of deviance change over TIME  Definitions of deviance change over SOCIAL SPACE  Must consider norm violations/reactions by others (conforming or deviant)  Moral Entrepreneurship  Process used to describe how to determine behaviours, attitudes, conditions come to social  Have power (community leaders, politicians, religious leader)  Moral Crusades  Process of organizing public support  Authority (campaign, mass media)  Platform they have (spiritual group, politician group of followers)  “Squeegee Kids” in Toronto  Problem: Unemployed homeless youth ages 12-16  Politicians were concerned calling young people aggressive threats to drivers  Gained media attention  Removed focus from youth homelessness created as threat to urban habitability  Caught squeegeeing criminalized (eliminated visibility of homelessness) SOCIAL DEVIANCE any acts that involve the violation of social norms PREVENTING CRIME: SOCIAL CONTROL  If social order exists, so must social control  Systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to discourage deviance  Process that Keeps people from acting outside of social norms  Lecture (teacher acting as an agent of social control, has authority)  FORMAL social control  Authorized position (instructor, security guard, laws)  Agent of social control  Sometimes require informal social control (police),  INFORMAL social control  Anything else that encourages you to conform  Family, friends, group, institution  Private level family, close friends, ppl who ‘s opinion you value  Parochial level community, religious organizations, media (social networking sites)  Public level you bringing in formal agents of social control  report it to police when see a crime in progress  report to instructor when see students cheating  crime stoppers Module 5.2: Theoretical Perspectives CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY: RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY 1. ppl have free will to choose criminal/lawful solutions crime is rational choice 2. crime solutions are seen as more attractive than lawful ones if they require less work for greater payoff 3. fear of punishment can control people’s choices 4. when criminality is met w/ measured severity, certainty of punishment, and swiftness of justice, a society is better able to control criminal behaviours Before someone commits crime, they engage rational evaluation of pros/cons of situation BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES  positivism application of scientific method to the social world  biological determinism biological factors completely determine a person’s behaviour - Cesare Lombroso 1800s - criminal man (hair, shape of head, eyes, eyebrows, nose, ears, skin, teeth and chin) low, sloping forehead, high cheekbones, handled shaped ears, large chin, hawk-like nose, fleshy lips - William Sheldon 1940s  Mesomorphs (extroverted aggressive, muscular)  Ectomorphs (thin, fret a lot, introverted)  Endomorphs (laid-back, extroverted, soft and limp,f at) SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES Individual Motivation Sociological - “evil” possessed/ - spiritual - Learned behaviours (social interaction) - “out of control” - psychological - Lack of resources (social structure) - “sick” - biological - Labeled “criminal” (social power) FUNCTIONALISM  DURKHEIM: anomie a state which norms are confused, unclear, not present  Structure of society produces social pressures resulting in deviant behaviour  Strain Theory ppl experience strain when culturally defined goals cannot be met through socially approved means  MERTON typology to describe 5 ways ppl react to culturally defined success goals: 1. Conformity ppl both accept social goals and have means to achieve them 2. Innovation goals of society are accepted but person isn’t capable of achieving t
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