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Chapter 12

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

CHAPTER 12: SOCIAL CHANGE, COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOUR, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS CLIQUES a group of tightly interconnected people  Satisfy human needs for interaction/support  Produce new roles, rules, cultural values (Bohemians, new clubs)  Have unstated missions – to raise status of cliques at expense of non-members  Queen B’s and Wannabes  How are problems of cliques understood as gendered? Is this fair?  Who/what is being blames? Is this fair?  Do cliques discussed align w/ definition in textbook?  Are cliques an example of anomie? Or functional element of society?  Is cool ideological?  Is there a relationship btw/ cliques and alienation? Module 12.2: Collective Behaviour LOCALIZED COLLECTIVITIES Collective behaviour when ppl come together to achieve a meaningful short-term goal that may result in social change CROWDS unorganized collections of ppl who gather temporarily for particular cause/united by common mood  Casual crowd ppl who just happen to be in same place at same time (people at shopping mall)  Lacks formal leadership, structure, simplest  Conventional crowd ppl who gather for structured social event  Weddings, hockey games, ethnic festivals  Ppl generally behave appropriate, disperse without incident  Protest crowd deliberately assembled crowd to rally support for a social movement  Expressive crowd ppl who gather intentionally to express emotions  gay parades, funeral  Acting crowd ppl who gather to express anger and direct it outwardly at specific person, category of ppl, event - Riot type of acting crowd that directs it’s anger towards multiple targets, moving from one -->another in unpredictable ways  Beating of Rodney King created an uproar causing huge riots on streets for 6 days  Mob crowd that gathers to achieve an emotionally driven goal, confronts it, fades away - Flash mob planned gathering of large # ppl for brief and predetermined period of time, disperse immediately after event (websites www.flashmob.com) - (China’s treatment of Tibetan monks) DISPERSED COLLECTIVITIES RUMOR info passed from person to person that lacks reliable evidence to substantiate their claim  Occur when ppl face ambiguous situations, desperately want accurate info  Company loses money rumours spread and workers worry about layoffs and factory closures  Spread rapidly 1. Gossip intimate and personal communication meant to be entertaining 2. Urban legends short, persistent, tale with an ironic of supernatural twist (spider eggs are ingredient for gum) MASS HYSTERIA ppl react to real/imagined event w/ irrational or frantic fear  “War of the Worlds” – martian invasion, frightened and disturbed DISASTER BEHAVIOR unexpected event that causes extensive damage to ppl, animals, property  Fllods, earthquakes, hurricans, natural/human disaters FASHION social pattern that outwardly express an individual’s identity as being “with it” (clothes, music, style of cellphone)  Fads short lived, but enthusiastically embraced new cultural element  Object fads cellphone, pet rock, pogs  Idea fads astrology, UFOs  Activity fads botox injections, tongue piercing, bungee jumping  Personality fads Elvis, Oprah,  Crazes widespread emotional connection to cultural phenom PUBLICS accumulation of ppl who have defined political interest for meeting, and who are organized by common mood SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES CONTAGION Theory  Gustav Le Bon (1841-1931)  Understand why people behave differently when they are in groups then alone  When gather in crowd, lose conscious personality  replaced by barbaric “collective mind”  Irrationality of crowd is contagious and create excitement hypnotic effect  3 factors:  anonymity (ppl have to feel they’re lost w/in group)  suggestibility (anonymity makes ppl more suggestible to collective will)  contagion (mindless emotional activity will spread through group) CONVERGENCE Theory  argues the group is not source of negative behaviour appeals to particular type of person  when people of same mind converge, more likely to manifest irrational behaviour  irrational people at soccer games -fights (type of person: hooligan) EMERGENT NORM Theory  symbolic interactionist aggressive/anti-social behaviours are viewed as resulting from an adjustment to new norms that emerge w/in a given group and certain situations  ppl turn to others for cues on how to behave or what course of action to take  new norms are result of ongoing interaction btw/ members of group  those who follow new norms, stay in group, those who don’t leave  crowd behaviour result of dynamic exchanges btw/ participants Module 12.3: Social Movements SOCIAL MOVEMENTS collections of people who are organized to bring about/resist social change  “people form a social movement when they voluntarily work together to influence the distribution of social goods:”  Social movements are conscious, concerted, sustained efforts by ordinary ppl to change some aspect of their society by using extra-institutional means  distinct from a social trend, voluntary association, political party  people who participate in social movements: 1. have shared common identity 2. act at least partly outside of traditional political institutions and use protest as one of their primary forms of action 3. they rely on non-institutionalized networks of interaction 4. they reject or challenge dominant forms of power INFORMAL social movements  usually have personal stake at hand  emerges challenge to specific local issue  direct hazard (changes to community’s drinking water infrastructure)  a plan (proposal to construct a nearby dam/nuclear plant)  concern or threat (proposal to ban domestic use of pesticides) FORMAL social movements  large, well-integrated, established organization w/ bureaucratic procedures  do not operate w/oin society’s existing power structures (government/business)  Greenpeace of pro-choice organizations CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS LEVEL of change DIRECTION of change  local movement targeting domestic pesticide use vs.  some movements seen as progressive/ in line w/ public national org. fighting the proliferation of genetically opinion (groups advocating use of alternative fuels) modified foods  others resist of reverse current trends (g
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