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Chapter 2

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

WEEK 3 – Tuesday September 17 , 2012 METHODS, ETHICS & SOCIALIZATION - Research design - Questions - Data - Methods Research Methods - For collecting data (participant observation, surveys, interviews) - Or analyzing data (content analysis, statistical analysis, narrative analysis) Quantitative Qualitative - RESEARCH QUESTIONS: - RESEARCH QUESTIONS: - Begins w/ hypothesis & why questions. - Begins with what and how questions - (rltshps btwn variables) - PURPOSE STATEMENT: - PURPOSE STATEMENT: - To explain phenomena, to test hypotheses. - To explore phenomena - Involves deductive reasoning (theory to data) - involves inductive reasoning (data to theory)  Eg, roller derby skating - SCALE: - SCALE: - Larger sample sizes - Smaller sample sizes - METHODS: - METHODS: - Surveys, Statistical Analysis, Content Analysis - Ethnographic methods (****Neither of these methods are more valid, both have flaws****) (****Quantitative reduce the data to #’s, Qualitative analyzes data as text or a narrative****) QUANTITATIVE METHODS: KEY CONCEPTS - Hypothesis (Durkheim) o In quantitative research one begins with a testable theory o A tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically - Variables are used to measure relationships o Independent Variable; can be varied or manipulated o Dependent Variable; is the reaction (or lack thereof) of the manipulation - Operational Definition describes how a variable is measured SURVEY DESIGN - Types of Data: - Survey Designs: - Demographic - Cross Sectional - Social Environment - Longitudinal (ongoing) - Activities - Trend (election surveys) - Opinions & Attitudes - Cohort (particular demographic) Where to ppl get their data? Get it from the census and stats Canada EXAMPLES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - Michael Haan “The Place of Place: Location and Immigrant Economic Well-Being in Canada” - Hypothesis: There is a relationship between city of immigrant settlement and economic well- being - Is it better to move to smaller cities or bigger cities? Independent Variable - Gateway cities: Toronto, Vancouver - Non Gateway cities Dependent Variable: Economic well-being (slightly higher in non-gateway cities) i) Employment status ( better than smaller places ) ii) Income ( better in smaller places ) iii) Employment mismatch ( QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS - **Ethnography (writing about culture) o Participant Observation o Interviewing o Archival Research - Content Analysis ETHNOGRAPHIC LEGACIES - Harriet Martineau “Society in America” 1837 - How to Observe Morals and Manners 1838 - Erving Goffman “Asylums” 1961 - Ethnographic Study Rules According to Martineau: i) Do not rush to conclusions ii) Do not generalize from limited observations iii) Recognize that observations are approximations to the truth iv) Not laugh or judge other cultures v) Combine or use interviews and use of statistics Asylums are key facilities for socializations. CONTENT ANALYSIS - Any systematic procedure which is devised to examine the content of recorded information - Media Analyzed… o Newspapers, books o Pamphlets, graffiti, film, tv, advertising, letters, billboards, memoirs o Eg. Women behaviour, choosing careers that are less prestigious, newspapers have dominant ideas of gender choices CONCLUSION METHOD MUST CORRESPOND WITH RESEARCH QUESTIONS OFFER DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATA AND ANALYZE SOCIALIZATION - The lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities and become functioning members of society. - Primary socialization (birth to adolescence) (intentional and unintentional) - Secondary socialization (recalibrating/reciprocal socialization) - Anticipatory socialization (preparing for a new role, military basic training, kindergarten) - Re-socialization (practices of helping people re-enter society) (jail>society)
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