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Chapter 2

SOC103- Chapter 2- Research, Methodology, and Ethics.docx

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

SOC103- Chapter 2- Research, Methodology, and Ethics Module 2.1- Connecting Theory and Research  Research conducted through biomedical and social science disciplines  Outcome: an attempt to create knowledge through a process of discovery Methodological Approaches: Quantitative and Qualitative Research  2 main approaches to social research—quantitative and qualitative Systems of reasoning: inductive and deductive logic  2 systems of reasoning—inductive and deductive  Inductive logic- a way of reasoning that moves from data to the formation of a theory o Gathers information about topic X before developing theories 1. Select/ define the research problem 2. Develop the research design 3. Collect data 4. Analyze data 5. Review the literature 6. Formulate the hypothesis/ draw conclusions/ report findings  Deductive logic- a way of reasoning that mores from theory to the formulation of hypotheses for testing o Develops a theory or a set to explain or predict a pattern 1. Select/ define the research problem 2. Review the literature 3. Formulate the hypothesis 4. Develop the research design 5. Collect data 6. Analyze data 7. Draw conclusions/ report findings  Qualitative approach—inductive reasoning  Quantitative approach—deductive reasoning Module 2.2- Steps in the Research Process  Sociology referred to a social science  Social= we study/ Science= how we study  Don’t use common sense— ensure data is recorded and tested to provide the most accurate picture of human behavior possible  Outcome= describe and predict human behavior within a given text  Scientific method- systematic approach researchers follow in their quest for answers to research problem  Hypothesis- tentative statement about a particular relationship that can me tested empirically  Independent variable- variable that can be manipulate to create some change in the dependent variable  Dependent variable- variable whose condition is reliant on the nature of the independent variable (the effect)  Operational definition- a description of how a variable is measured Module 2.3- Research Methods in Detail  Surveys—large scale projects—useful for asking what and why o Self-administrated questionnaires  Closed-ended questions- questions that list possible answers  Quantitative research o Telephone surveys o In-person surveys  Interviews- involve a researcher asking respondents a series of questions; interviews can be unstructured, semi-structured or structured o Issue—power relation unequal relationship between interview and interviewee o Herzog (200
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