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Chapter 1

SOC103- Chapter 1- understanding the sociological imagination.docx

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

SOC103- Chapter 1: understanding the sociological imagination Module 1.1 - The Sociological Imagination  Sociology- the systematic study of human groups and their interactions  Sociological perspective- a view of society based on a dynamic relationship between individuals and the larger social network in which we all live Charles Wright Mills and the Sociological Imagination  Suggested that people who do not or cannot recognize the social origins and character of their problems may be unable to respond to these problems  Highlighted the difference between person troubles and social issues caused by larger social factors  Personal troubles- person challenges that require individual solutions  Social issues- challenges caused by larger social factors that require collective solution  Personal problems never become social issues people don’t relate what is happening to themselves to the social world  Quality of mind- Mills’ term for the ability to view personal circumstance within a social context  Sociological imagination- Mills’ term for the ability to perceive how dynamic social forces influence individual lives o Improve a persons’ quality of mind Peter Berger’s View of the Sociological Perspective  Seeing the general in the particular o Seemingly unique events and then recognize the larger features involved o More from the particular to general and back  Seeing the strange in the familiar o Thinking about the familiar and seeing it as strange What make you, you? Engaging the sociological imagination  Agency- the assumption that individuals have the ability to alter their socially constructed lives  Five social factors o Minority status face various forms of discrimination o Gender how society treats men and woman differently o Socio-economic status terms used to describe a combination of variables to position or score people on criteria such as income, education, occupation, residence  Ascribed status- Advantages and disadvantages assigned at birth  Achieved status- attributes developed throughout life as a result of effort and skill o Family structure well being of children associated with household income o Urban-rural differences Module 1.2 – The Origins of Sociology  Sophists first thinkers to focus their efforts on the human being  Socrates and Plato challenged the virtue of being paid for ones knowledge and advocated the necessity of deeper reflected on the human social condition  1838 ‘sociology’ term coined by Auguste Comte Three Revolutions: The rise of Sociology  The Scientific Revolution o During the Enlightenment period facilitated the pace of social change o Auguste Comte considered the application of the scientific method to an understanding of the social world  World was interpreted through a scientific lens then society could be guided by observation, experimentation, and logic  Positivism Theoretical approach that considers all understanding to be based on science  Society would be better run of we used positivism to make our decisions on social policy  The Political Revolution o Renaissance and later the Enlightenment inspired a great deal od social and scientific change 1 SOC103- Chapter 1: understanding the sociological imagination o Niccolo Machiavelli challenged the birthright of the nobility and asserted that anyone could become a price o Rene Descartes “I think therefore I am” – humans were able to understand their world through rational reflection o Thomas Hobbs true nature of human kind is self-preservation- can only be achieved through cooperation o Belief that people were born on a blank slate  The Industrial Revolution o Changed every aspect of life  Family structure, how people made a living, even peoples thoughts, dreams, and aspirations o Profound social changes inspired revolution  Moving from an agricultural and rural economy to a capitalist and urban From Europe to North America: The Development of Sociology  Europe: Macrosociologydramatic changes in the social lives of Europeans- the industrial, political, and scientific revolutions o Macrosociology- Study of society as a whole  North America: Macrosociology focuses on individuals and/ or small groups and how they behave in particular face-to-face social networks o Symbolic interactionism- perspective asserting that people and societies are defined and created through the interactions of individuals Sociology in Canada  Five defining features help distinguish Canadian sociology from the American Tradition o Geography contributed to its development o Francophone Sociology intertwined in the social movement of the time (Quebec) o Canadianization hire and train more Canadian sociology in order to investigate and Understand Canadian society from a Canadian perspective o Political economy- interactions of politics, government, and governing, and the social and cultural constitution of markets, institutions and actors o Radical approach- simultaneous emergence of the Canadianizaion movement are the women’s movement lead to political of knowledge  Early Canadian Sociologists o Annie Marion Maclean (1870-1934)- First woman to receive a Ph.D. in sociology  One of the first large-scale applications of survey research in Canada o Sir Herbert Brown Ames (1863-1954)- First Canadian examples of sociology that relied on various statistical analyses to document the slum conditions people experienced living south of downtown Montreal o Carl Dawson (1887-1964)- First sociologist to be hire at McHill University o Harold Adams Innis (1894-1952)- remembers by is analysis of Canada’s political economy through his staples thesis hypothesis and his studies of media theory o Aileen D Ross (1902-1995)- strong ties to gender roles o Helen Abell (1919-2003)- focused on farm families o Katheen Herman (1920-?)- Chair of the Canadian sociology and anthropology associations canadianization movement o John Porter (1921-1979)- investigation thin equality in Canada and the use of power by Canada bureaucratic, economic, and political elites o Ruth Rittenhouse Morris (1933- 2001)- focused on the attempt to abolish the penal system in favor of an alternative justices system Module 1.3 - Sociology and its cl
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