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Chapter 4

SOC103- Chapter 4- Socialization and Social Interaction.docx

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

SOC103- Chapter 4- Socialization and Social Interaction Module 4.1 Being Human  Personality- an individuals relatively stable pattern of behaviors and feelings  Nature VS nurture- debate over whether biological forces or environmental define the person we become  Socialization- life long process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning members of society  Social interaction- ways in which people interact in social settings while recognizing each persons subjective experiences and/ or interactions The nature argument: being born you  Nurture side is more important in determining the person you become  Sociobiology- science that uses evolutionary theory and genetics inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behavior  Darwinian inheritance to show how human behaviors are selected for and passed on from one generation to the next  Evolutionary psychology- relabeled form of sociobiology The nurture argument: learning to be you  Young children are isolated from human contact  Isolates- children raised in social isolation  Effects of social isolation o Human interaction is obvious in light of such cases of children who have suffered from sever neglect o Social reality is constructed by people every time they interact with others o Genetic make up social being  Process of social interaction enables us to develop that capacity Module 4.2 The Development of Self Sociological insights  Self- ones identity, comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops though social interaction and that defines one’s self-image  Self-image- introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as  Imagining how others see us: C.H. Cooley o Looking glass- the idea that we think of ourselves is influenced by how we image other people see us o To be aware of one self you must be aware of society o 3 step process  We imagine how we look to others—both physically and socially  We imagine how others look at us and pass judgment on what we present  Based on what we imagine, a self- concept develops  Understanding ourselves and others: G.H. Mead o Self is composed of 2 complementary elements  I—the part of self that is spontaneous, creative, and impulsive and often predictable  Part of consciousness that responds to things emotionally  Me- socialized element of the self  The part of consciousness that thinks about how to behave o Significant others- People we want to impress or gain approval from o Generalized other- compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society; represents an individual appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially accepted guidelines and rules o Role-taking- Assuming the position of another in order to better understand that persons perspective  Imagine what it would be like in different shoes o Children grow up—3 stages  Preparatory stage (birth-3) imitate what others are doing  Play stage (3-5)imagined roles of character  Game stage (elementary-school years) generalized other 1 SOC103- Chapter 4- Socialization and Social Interaction o Primary socialization- occurs when people learn the attitudes, values, and appropriate behaviors for individuals in their culture o Secondary socialization- follows primary socialization and occurs through participation in more specific groups with defined roles and expectations  Psychological insight o View socialization as a process of internal conflict and tension o Psychosexual development: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) people behave according to drives and experiences—not always aware  Unconscious mind is full of memories of events, experiences, and traumas from childhood  Defense mechanisms- ways which individuals manage painful memories  Human personality parts  Id- individuals biological drives and impulses that strike for instant gratification  Superego- all the norms, values, and morals that are learned through socialization  Ego- intermediary between the id and superego that provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wants o Psychosocial development: Erik Erikson (1902-1994)  Early childhood experiences are important for personality developme
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