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Education – pages 150-189.docx

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SOC 203
Sal Guzzo

Education – pages 150-189 Chapter 10 Introduction: - Education: known for improving skills and abilities to be successful in life. - An individual’s educational success, or lack of it, contributes to their social mobility, up or down the distribution of inequality (good jobs, vs. bad jobs) o Open society: persons position in hierarchy of inequality can be altered by education - For women and ethnic groups it is more equally distributed now than previously - No change in regards to social class or socio-economic background Educational Attainment By Socio-Economic Background - Average time / years in schooling has increased, drop out rates decreased depending on social class or socioeconomic backgrounds - Parental education, income, and occupation, are indicators of class background and are strongly related to child’s school success - Over generations, education does little to alter the position of family members along the hierarchy of inequality. - Parents who did not complete high school, likelihood of attending uni; 1 in 5 kids. (17.6% Women, 13.0% men) - Those with one parent who attending uni, likelihood was 1 in 2 kids ( more common than those who had parents without high school competition) - Socio-economic gradient: The higher educational attainment by child of more educated parents o Children of families of higher economic status attain higher levels of education - Three factors underlie the socio-economic gradient: o 1) Causal linkage between family background and education attainment despite other factors like ethnicity, region, family structure. o 2) Gradient is robust (strong) across different measures of education or schooling (Ex: looking at high school drop outs instead of university attendance, we would find parent education has an influence on high school completion rates o 3) Gradient persists through time and across place. Exists in all industrial countries - Study: examined options for post secondary study open to grade 10 students o Family income influences the likelihood that students choose courses that will allow them to pursue post secondary education o In Ontario, 49% of grade 10 students with family incomes of under $30, 000 enrolled in high school courses permitting them to enroll in post secondary. For those with incomes of $90,000 or more, 73% were likely to be enrolled Educational Attainment by Gender - Past decades far fewer women than men advanced to higher education, but by 1982 more women than men were earning undergraduate degrees - Factors of change: women’s movement, and greater labor force participation - There are over 100, 000 more women than men pursing full time undergraduate degrees - Women have higher scholastic achievements relative to men, better study habits, school engagement, parent expectations - High paying jobs are more plentiful for men without university credentials than for women with the same education - Labor market is more segregated and gendered than schools - Royal Commission Report 1970: Women were minorities in medical and law schools, now they are the majority of students in those fields Educational Attainment By Ancestry, Race and Ethnicity - Likelihood of attaining some post secondary education between the ages of 24 to 26 is higher from those among visible minority backgrounds (87%) than those not in visible minority families (78%) - Children from immigrant families start off with less developed educational abilities but quickly converge with the Canadian born standards - Visible minority category is broad: can include people from West indies, japan, and India yet their experience may all be different. Conclusion - Children from different social classes have different likelihoods of dropping out or attaining a professional credential. - For women, school attainment is much equally distributed than in previous generations - School success is evident for immigrant and visible minority groups but less for others like First Nations Chapter 11 Introduction: - Students socioeconomic status shapes educational success from primary grades to post graduate studies - Poor or working class youth have fared less than affluent peers on standardized tests, high school completion rates or university attendance. - Sociologists from 1950s to 1990s examined barriers to working class youth that discouraged them from developing high educational experiences Recent Trends in Educational Attainment - By 2003, 62% of young Canadians attended a post secondary institution - Regardless of social origin, they possess more credentials than their parents or grandparents. - Despite Social Economic Status, Canadians attain some form of post secondary schools, even if they come from low-income families. - Attending higher education is becoming the norm, even among disadvantaged families - Educational gap between more and less affluent persist - Those from low income households may experience delays in vocabulary development - Teens with university educated parents score higher on reading, math, and science o This shapes later educational attainment - Youth from lower family income quartile are 3 times more likely to drop out of high school than those from the highest - 50.2% of youth from top quartile attended university, only 31% from the bottom did - 50% went to uni if they had education parents, 18% if they had non educated parents. - Despite the expansion of Canadians from all socio-backgrounds attending school longer, inequalities are strong. A Framework For Explaining Disparities - School attainment organized into framework distinguishing between resources Contents and expectations - Resources: refer to tangible possessions (i.e finances) or attributes of people (i.e skills) that offer advantages in school competitions. - Context: Refers to characteristics of schools and neighborhoods that can influence attainment over and above those resources - Expectations: refer to the processes by which people make education decisions Resources: - Money matters in education because even though K-12 public schools do not charge tuition, school performance can require additional money (paying for field trips, books, and other learning materials, uniforms, private tutors - Private schools are unaffordable to low income families - SES backgrounds affected decisions to attend university and academic ability due to the requirement of paying tuition fees. - Access to higher education depends by parental income; family wealth shapes odds of child attending post secondary school - Another economic factor is quality of schooling. Affluent students go to better quality schools with better teachers and resources, and more academic expectations. - Parental education is a more powerful predictor than parental income - Post Second World War Era, tuition fees were affordable - Financial resources whether for transportation, tutors, or part-time work affect school outcomes. - Other sociologists from 1950s to early 1990s explained educational disparities through cultural forces and the structure of schooling - Importance of non-material resources passed on from parents to children o Children informally learn academic skills from families o Parents pass on “human capital” basic reading, writing, vocabulary skills, disciplined work habits which gives them an advantage in school o Exposure to reading material at home improv
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