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Race and Ethnicity.docx

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SOC 203
Sal Guzzo

Race and Ethnicity 275-304 Racial Inequalities and Discrimination  Visible minorities have much lower relative household incomes and higher poverty rates than do ethnic groups  Relative house incomes of virtually all racial minority groups are substantially lower than those of almost all white groups  Main economic problem for racial minority immigrants is finding adequate employment  Economic disadvantage and high rates of poverty may attenuate over time and the entry effect will disappear  Immigrant employment difficulties 1.find that any educational advantage they might have due to Canada’s skill selective immigration policy is offset by the fact that most settle in urban areas where jobs are plentiful but competition Is intense 2. Immigrants’ skills tend to be discounted in the labour market, while those of the native born are not 3. Racial minority immigrants face more obstacles than immigrants of European origin and native born workers 4. Isolation  Despite earnings mobility experienced by immigrants as their time in Canada increases, the general trend toward declining earnings also affects immigrants who have been in Canada longer Perceptions of Racial Prejudice and Discrimination: A Racial Divide?  The fact that immigrants experience inequality and disadvantage may not in itself be divisive if it is regarded as the result of understandable circumstances- such as new comer status, lack of sufficient language skills or training that does not match Canadian job requirements  Those who responded to the survey: 35.9% of people in Canada reported experiences of discrimination.  Greater experience in Canada seems to lead to larger racial gap in the perception of discrimination  Only a minority of the white population think that prejudice is something that the Canadian government should address with more determination Evidence of Discrimination against Racial Minority Immigrants  Four types of evidence are cited in discussions of the extent of discrimination: 1. Prejudice attitudes 2.evidence of discrimination in human right cases 3. Field tests of discrimination 4. Discrimination as revealed by statistical analysis of earnings gap in labour market surveys  Each is useful and problematic – the four types of evidence suggest that the possibility of significant discrimination should be taken seriously  1. A Canadian human rights tribunal decision that found systemic racial discrimination in the federal public service illustrates the complex nature of evidence required for legal proof  2. The government of Canada generally considered an opponent of racial bias and discrimination  3. It still does not address the question of the extent to which discrimination accounts for the overall economic inequalities experienced by racial minorities  4. Foreign acquired educational qualifications might be lower quality, foreign experience might not be relevant in Canada or language skills might be deficient in subtle but significant ways Education and Employment for the Children of Immigrants  Critical to the long-term integration of racial minorities- their experiences may be a better test of the prevalence of racial discrimination  The education levels of racial minority second generation in Canada are fairly high  Among persons 20 years of age or older, both immigrant and native born visible minorities have significantly higher rates of high school graduation than the majority population  Simmons and plaza conclude that young black men in Canada show a modest disadvantage  Racial discrimination for native born racial minorities is significant- inequality is on the rise Summary  Racial minorities have the lowest incomes and highest rates of poverty, many members of these groups believe they have experience discrimination based on their minority racial origins Social Cohesion and The social integration of racial minorities  ‘cohesions’ refers to the capacity of society to set and implement collective goals  Conflict does not necessarily detract from cohesion it may actually help resolve problems of intergroup relations and hence be an essential part of social life in a cohesive society  Social integration, refers to the extent to which individual members of a group form relationship with people outside the group- relationships that help them to achieve individual economic, social or cultural goals Recency of immigration and the second generation  Whites who have greater experience Canada are better integrated into society than their visible minority counter parts- visible minorities are more likely than white to become citizens and there are no major differences in volunteering  Although visible minority immigrants have lower earnings than whites at an individual level, low earnings in and of themselves contribute little or nothing to these trends in social integration  Many of the most important trends affect all visible minorities  Improvement in immigrants earnings may contribute to successful integration but higher earnings alone do not smooth the path to integration Goals of Canadian Multiculturalism and Antiracism  Multiculturalism is the centerpiece of Canada’s policy on the interethnic relations and its focus is on broad ideals rather than specific goals and objectives  Governments have responded to race issues as they have arisen, but with little coordination or continuity  Citizenship and immigrant Canada is responsible for immigrant selection and settlement  A perception of multiculturalism as largely symbolic and incapable of creating a major social impact has been reinforced by the fact that program expenditures are very small Public Information and Goal Settin
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