• What is precarious work?
o Increases in self-employment
o Members of new middle class going into business for themselves because
of the reduced job security produced by large companies either
downsizing or contracting out work.
• What is Class-consciousness?
o Researchers influenced by Marx, used a typology involving three types of
Class awareness (identity)
• Awareness of membership in a distinct class
• Majority of the people in middle class adopt this lifestyle
Oppositional class consciousness
• Belief that the interests of the workers and capitalists are
• Issues such as rights of labour unions and redistribution if
income; the attitudes of workers and capitalists diverge
o Capitalists- more pro business and less pro labour
Revolutionary or counter hegemonic class consciousness
• Belief in the possibility and desirability of a society
organized along non-capitalist lines
• Why have unionization rates declined in the last 30 years?
o Lower because of shift of private sector employment from goods
producing industries such as manufacturing and mining in which union
density is higher but unions are declining
o Unions have had little success in organizing new growth industries and
occupations such as information technology
o Trend towards decreases in establishment size in goods producing
industries since unionization rates are generally lower in small firms
o The g