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Chapter 3

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 203
Professor
Silvano Guzzo
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3-Culture MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What do sociologists refer to as “the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society”? a. culture b. society c. social organization d. religion ANS: A MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 57 2. Three sociologists are discussing the relationship between society and culture. What are they likely to conclude about this relationship? a. Culture and society are both composed of people. b. Culture, unlike society, seldom generates discord, conflict, or violence. c. Culture and society are interdependent. d. Culture can exist without society. ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 57 3. Traveling outside North American or meeting someone from a culture vastly different from our own provides us with opportunities to do what? a. develop diversity awareness b. develop a sociological imagination c. develop language skills d. develop new gestures and signs ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 58 4. You have been asked to give a brief presentation to your Introduction to Sociology class on the acquisition of human culture. What will be the basic message of your presentation? a. We learn about culture through interaction, observation, and imitation in order to participate as members of a group. b. We are born with a shared sense of who we are and where we belong. c. Rules about civility, tolerance, and how to communicate with one another are reflexes, drives, and instincts humans share. d. Culture comes from the toolkit given to us by nature. ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 59-60 53 5. Giving foods of what shape to the parents of new babies is considered to be lucky in some cultures? a. square b. triangular c. rectangle d. round ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 60 6. When a person sneezes in response to dust particles, it is called what? a. an instinct b. a reflex c. a drive d. a conditioned response ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 59 7. Behavioural responses that satisfy needs such as sleep, food, water, or sexual gratification are examples of what? a. instincts b. reflexes c. drives d. learned behaviours ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 59 8. According to sociologist Ann Swidler, what is a “tool kit of symbols, stories, rituals, and world views, which people may use in varying configurations to solve different kinds of problems”? a. culture b. society c. instincts d. reflexes ANS: A MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 60 54 9. Which of the following is an example of nonmaterial culture? a. kindness b. a train c. flash drives d. a cabin ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 61 10. What term would a sociologist use to describe grain elevators, banking pin chips, or training in CPR? a. industrialization b. technology c. material culture d. nonmaterial culture ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 61 11. In which of the following would you be participating in material culture? a. attending a religious service b. driving on a highway c. going to the theatre d. studying a new language ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 61 12. Gillian argues that there is one, all-powerful god. What aspect of culture is best exemplified by Gillian’s argument? a. norm b. value c. belief d. language ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 62 13. What are customs and practices that occur across all societies? a. symbols b. beliefs c. norms d. cultural universals ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 62 55 14. Five interconnected rings appear as an emblem on Olympic promotional material. What would a sociologist refer to the rings as? a. a symbol b. a social fact c. cultural referents d. values ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 63 15. Your best friend ends every e-mail to you with the signature :)>+. Which of the following terms best describes her signature? a. an emotion b. an emoticon c. a semicon d. a sentiment ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 63 16. What is one of our most important human attributes? a. knowledge b. norms c. language d. culture ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 64 17. What does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis argue? a. Language imprisons people. b. Language is common to both animals and humans. c. Language shapes how its speakers view reality. d. Language is less important than symbols in determining how we view the world. ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 64 18. If you were to apply the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which of the following assumptions would you make? a. Thought and language exist independent of one another. b. We have thoughts then we express them through language. c. Language comes before thought. d. We perceive reality then use language to explain it. ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 64 56 19. What is one significant difference between English and many Aboriginal languages? a. There are many more nouns that have gender in Aboriginal languages. b. English divides nouns in the animate and inanimate. c. Many Aboriginal languages have several different pronouns meaning he or she. d. Many Aboriginal languages are not preoccupied with gender. ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 65 20. One of your professors constantly uses the term mankind in place of the term humanity. Why does this annoy you? a. The relationship between language and gender gets masked. b. Using the masculine form ignores women. c. Language becomes objective and standardized. d. Pronouns that show the gender of the person we expect to be in a particular occupation are missing. ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 65 21. Which of the following terms represents a language-based predisposition to think about women in sexual terms? a. female b. babe c. woman d. she ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 66 22. Which of the following is the best example of a gender-neutral term? a. maid b. actress c. councilman d. flight attendant ANS: D MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 65 57 23. Which of the following is an example of the way language may create and reinforce negative perceptions about race and ethnicity? a. counterrepresentations that portray positive images of certain ethic groups b. overtly derogatory terms popularized in movies, music, and other forms of popular culture c. the “voice” of verbs that overemphasize the importance of the activities and achievements of members of minority groups d. the “voice” of verbs that underemphasize the importance of the activities and achievements of members of majority groups ANS: B MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 66 24. According to the 2006 Census, what percentage of Canadians are bilingual? a. under 5 percent b. approximately 10 percent c. 15–20 percent d. over 30 percent ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 67 25. According to the 2006 Census, what percentage of Aboriginal persons reported an Aboriginal language as their first language? a. 5–10 percent b. 11–19 percent c. 20–30 percent d. over 30 percent ANS: A MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 67 26. What perspective would you be using if you argued that shared language is necessary for a common culture? a. conflict b. interactionist c. functionalist d. feminist ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 79 58 27. Suppose you were a conflict theorist. Which of the following statements are you most likely to make? a. Language is a source of power and social control. b. Language is an important means of cultural transmission. c. Language is a way for groups with less power to fight against the dominant group. d. Language is a stabilizing force in society. ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 79 28. According to Marx, social leaders use what cultural system to maintain positions of dominance in society? a. force b. discord c. values d. ideology ANS: D MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 79 29. Which of the following is a core Canadian value? a. consultation and dialogue b. inequality and injustice c. achievement and success d. kindness and love ANS: A MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 68 30. A local human rights organization has started a group at your campus. Recruitment coincides with final exams. Which of the following might students who are both academically driven and humanitarian minded experience? a. conflicted mores b. value contradictions c. real culture d. informal norms ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69 59 31. Canadians may believe that they are law abiding, but will routinely fail to wear a seat belt or slow down in school zones. What does this demonstrate? a. a discrepancy between ideal culture and real culture b. the difference between Canadians and Americans c. the differences between material culture and nonmaterial culture d. a discrepancy between cultural universals and value contradictions ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69 32. Which of the following is the best example of a proscriptive norm? a. standing during the national anthem b. giving up your seat on a bus to a pregnant woman c. wearing clothing d. texting in class during a lecture ANS: D MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69 33. Suppose a woman is named “Citizen of the Year” in her home community. What does this demonstrate? a. a folkway b. a positive sanction c. a negative sanction d. a law ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69 34. Suppose that during a movie, one person begins to talk to the person sitting next to him in an audible tone of voice. A man in another row turns around, frowns at him, and says “Keep it down!” What does this illustrate? a. an informal sanction b. a formal sanction c. a taboo d. a core value ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69 60 35. What are informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture? a. informal sanctions b. taboos c. folkways d. negative sanctions ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 69 36. What kind of norm formally deals with public safety and well-being? a. a civil law b. folkways c. mores d. a criminal law ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 37. When a person violates a folkway, what is the most likely reaction? a. an informal sanction b. a formal sanction c. a positive sanction d. a prescriptive norm ANS: A MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 78 38. Why are those who break mores more severely sanctioned than those who don’t follow folkways? a. because informal norms may be violated without serious consequences b. because breaking a more is universally offensive c. because mores are based on cultural values and are therefore considered to be crucial for the well-being of the group d. because all mores are considered taboos ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 69-70 39. A sociologist would refer to specific behavioural expectations of any society as what? a. prescriptions b. values c. codes of conduct d. norms ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 69 61 40. What do sociologists call mores that are so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable? a. laws b. taboos c. negative sanctions d. formal sanctions ANS: B MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 41. Which of the following is a taboo found in virtually every society? a. public urination b. incest c. nudity d. premarital sex ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 70 42. What are formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions? a. folkways b. mores c. laws d. legislative mandates ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 43. What kind of law deals with disputes between persons or groups? a. civil b. criminal c. informal d. formal ANS: A MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 62 44. With regard to the discussion of cultural change in the text, the Apple iPad is an example of which of the following? a. Cultures tend to remain fairly static. b. Societies experience cultural change at material levels but remain fairly static at nonmaterial levels. c. Most technological changes are modifications of existing technology. d. The pace of technological change has decreased significantly in recent years. ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 70 45. Who coined the term cultural lag? a. Emile Durkheim b. Max Weber c. William F. Ogburn d. Karl Marx ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 46. What is the gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions? a. cultural diffusion b. cultural relativity c. cultural innovation d. cultural lag ANS: D MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70 47. What is the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized? a. invention b. diffusion c. discovery d. cultural advancement ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 70-71 63 48. Historically, what involved unearthing natural elements or existing realities including fire or the true shape of the earth? a. invention b. diffusion c. discovery d. cultural advancement ANS: C MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 71 49. When existing cultural elements are reshaped into a new form, what process has occurred? a. cultural lag b. an invention c. a discovery d. cultural diffusion ANS: B MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 71 50. What is the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another? a. discovery b. diffusion c. functional reorganization d. rediscovery ANS: B MSC: BLM: Remember REF: page 71 51. Exploration, the media, and tourism assist with what process related to culture? a. discovery b. diffusion c. functional reorganization d. rediscovery ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 71 52. The popularity of Chinese food in Canada is an example of which of the following? a. cross-cultural advertising b. cultural lag c. cultural diffusion d. cultural diversity ANS: C MSC: BLM: Higher Order REF: page 71 64 53. North American society can be described as which of the following? a. homogeneous b. heterogeneous c. culturally advanced d. immigrant threatened ANS: B MSC: BLM: Higher
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