Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Sociology (561)
SOC 606 (3)
Chapter 10

SOC 606 - Chapter 10 Notes.docx

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SOC 606
Melanie Knight

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Labour Market and Employment Trends - Chapter 10 Good Jobs and Bad Jobs • At a minimum, good jobs are usually considered to have an above-average wage, access to benefits, employment security, stable working hours, and opportunities for promotion • Bad jobs lack these qualities, or have below average stability, hours, and pay What is a Labour Market? • Alabour market is where employers and employees come together, where workers get distributed into jobs and industries • Some economists, especially human capital theorists, conceive of the labour market as a single and open competition in which people are rewarded in proportion to their education and skills • The labour market in Canada is not always open and fair competition • Many sociologists talk about labour markets in the plural because there is not ONE single and open Canadian labour market • The labour market you have access to determines how much you will earn, how many hours you will work, and the equality of your working life Labour-Market Segmentation Theory • Labour market segmentation theory focuses on how labour markets are "segmented" or separated into sections containing different kinds of jobs • This is sometimes called the "dual labour market theory" • It emphasizes that jobs are divided according to their location in the "core" or "periphery" of the economy The Core: • GOOD JOBS • The core industry is a group of companies in relatively noncompetitive market (the automobile industry, for example) • Core industries tend to be large, unionized and they can exert control over their environment (e.g., by influencing governments to limit foreign competition) • Core industries also include such service industries as financial services and professional, technical, and scientific services • Jobs in core industries tend to be good jobs The Periphery: • BAD JOBS • Characterized by lower-tier service industries and jobs in highly competitive markets • Lower-tier service industries include many of those in the accomodation and food service industries and culture and recreation • Tend to be smaller, labour intensive, and nonunionized • Pays low wages, lacks security • High turnover, few or no fringe benefits, non-standard work hours • Primary labour market jobs are modelled on the notion of a "lifetime" job that guarantees workers a high level of job security, annual wage increases, and opportunities for promotion • Secondary labour market jobs do not offer much security or upward mobility and are therefore sometimes called "dead-end jobs" (ATim Hortons employee, for example) • Many organizations have primary and secondary labour markets operating side-by- side and in the same job • Labour market chances are also affected by membership in unions and professional associations also known as labur marekt shelters • One outcome of labour market segmentation is the creation of labour market ghettos, which trap certain groups of workrs in some of the worst jobs in the labour market or within occupational categories Contexualizing the Canadian Labour Market • Economic booms and busts affect labour market outcomes Key Shifts in the Labour Force since the 1970s • Key changes in the Canadian Labour Market: 1. Canada's labour force is now older 2. Canada's population is now more educated than it was 30 years ago 3. The growing reliance on immigration to meet the demand for skilled workers 4. Women's participation in the labour force WhereAre Canadians Working From Manufacturing to Service Economy: Changes in Industry • Goods-producing industries include natural resources, manufacturing, construction, and agricultural: service industries include retail and wholesale trade, health care, public administration, education, business services, information, culture, and recreation • Service industries employed 75% of all Canadian workers • Deindustrialization refers to the decline of the industrial or goods-producing sector in Canada and the US beginning in the 1970s and the subsequent rise of the service sector • The largest industrial sector of the economy is retail and wholesale trade. In this sector, about three quarters of workers are in retail • Manufacturing sector was second largest • The healthcare and social sector is the third largest Occupation • The labour market is seeing a shift towards knowledge occupations, those in which a high proportion of workers have a university education • They include health professions, science and engineering, and management Private Sector, Public Sector, and Self-Employment • Men make up the majority of private sector and self-employed workers Employment and Labour Force Participation • The health of the economy is based on the proportion of the population working, the number of people who are employed for pay DIVIDED by the total population. This is how researchers calculate the employment rate • The employment rate is also called the employment to population ratio • The employment rate is usually considered the KEY economic indicator due to the discrepancies and difficulties in defining who is employed (and actively looking for work) Labour Force Participation Rate: • Researchers also calculate the proportion of the population working by using the labour force participation rate • The labour force participation rate measures the number of people in the labour force who are working or are available for work • It is a measure of all those working for pay and all those unemployed but actively looking for work divided by the total population Geographic Location • The highest employment rates in Canada were found in the three Prairie provinces Employment rate of Men and Women • There are many reasons why women's employment has increased 1. Political and social movements during the 60s and 70s 2. Economic reasons (during the period of deindustrialization and the subsequent decline of well-paying male-dominated jobs, there was an increased need for women to work, especially those with children who needed to help support their families). 3. The change to a service economy 4. The emphasis on part-time work 5. Rising education levels of women and the declining birth weight Immigrants • New immigrants were less likely to be employed than non-immigrants • Explanations for this phenomenon include lower returns to education for recent immigrants than for past cohorts of immigrants and increased competition for jobs due to the rising levels of education for native-born workers Aboriginal Workers • Aboriginal workers had a lower employment rate than all other workers • Low levels of education definitely affectAboriginals' employment • Employment is also related t
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