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Chapter 6

Anatomy and Physiology HAP101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Medullary Cavity, Bone Marrow, Hyaline Cartilage


Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
Anatomy and Physiology HAP101
Professor
Tania Killian
Chapter
6

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HAP 101 Chapter 6: The Skeletal System Bone Tissue
LO 6.1: Discuss the functions of bone and the skeletal system
Function
Explanation
Support
Supports soft tissues, provides attachment points for tendons
Protection
Protects most important internal organs from injury
Assistance in
Movement
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, when muscles contract, bones are pulled to
make movement
Mineral Homeostasis
(Storage and
Release)
Bone tissue stores several minerals that contribute to strength of bone. On demand,
bone releases minerals into blood stream to maintain homeostasis and distribute
minerals to other body parts. Mostly store Ca and K
Blood Cell
Production
Red bone marrow is a connect tissue that produces RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
through hemopoiesis. RBM consists of developing BC, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and
macrophages within a network of reticular fibres. It is represent in various parts of
the body
Triglyceride Storage
Yellow bone marrow consists of adipose cells that store triglycerides (potential
chemical energy reserve)
LO 6.2: Describe the structure and histology of bone and describe the anatomy of a long bone. Include a
discussion on osteoblast and osteoclast function
Long bone: one that has greater length than width. A typical long bone consists of the following
Part
Explanation
Diaphysis
The bone’s shaft or body – the long, cylindrical main portion of the bone
Epiphyses
The proximal and distal ends of the bone
Metaphyses
The regions between the diaphysis and the epiphyses. In growing bones, each metaphysis
contains an epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the
bone to grow in length. When the bone ceases to grow, the cartilage is replaced by bone,
resulting in the epiphyseal line
Articular
Cartilage
A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms
an articulation with another bone. It reduces friction and absorbs shock at free joints.
Repair of damage is limited, as it lacks blood vessels and perichondrium
Periosteum
A tough connective tissue sheath; associated blood supply that surrounds the bone surface
whenever it is not covered by articular cartilage. Composed of an outer fibrous layer and
an inner osteogenic layer. It also protects the bone, assists in fracture repair, helps nourish
bone tissue, and is an attachment point for ligaments and tendons. It is attached to an
underlying bone by perforating fibres, bundles of collagen that extend from the
periosteum into the bone’s extracellular matrix
Medullary
Cavity
Also known as marrow cavity, is a hallow, cylindrical space in the diaphysis that contains
YBM and blood vessels. It minimizes bone weight by reducing dense bony material
whenever not needed. The tubular design provides maximum strength with minimum
weight
Endosteum
A thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity. Contains a single layer of bone-forming
cells and small amounts of connective tissue
Osseous tissue (bone tissue) contains extracellular matrix that surrounds widely separated cells. The
matrix is made up of water, collagen fibres and crystallized mineral salts (mostly calcium phosphate and
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