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Chapter 7

Anatomy and Physiology HAP101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Inferior Nasal Concha, Superior Orbital Fissure, Ethmoid Bone

Anatomy and Physiology
Course Code
Anatomy and Physiology HAP101
Tania Killian

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HAP 101 Week Five/Chapter 7 The Skeletal System The Axial Skeleton
LO 7.1: Discuss major differences between appositional bone growth and interstitial bone growth
LO 7.2: Describe how exercise and mechanical stress affect bone and tissues
Division of the Skeletal System
Adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones
Infant human skeleton consists of more than 206 bones, as some of the bones fuse together late in life
Bones of human skeleton are grouped into two major divisions
o The Axial Skeleton: includes the skull (cranium and face), hyoid bone, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, and
thorax. The total number of bones in this skeleton are 80
o The Appendicular Skeleton: pectoral girdles (clavicle and scapula), upper limbs (humerus, ulna, radius, carpals,
metacarpals, phalanges), pelvic girdle (hip, pelvic, or coxal bone), and lower limbs (femur, patella, fibula, tibia,
tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges). The total number of bones in this skeleton are 126
Types of Bones
Short Bones: somewhat cube-shaped and are nearly equal in length and width. They consist of spongy bone tissue except
at the surface, which as a thin layer of compact bone tissue. Found in the wrist and ankle
Flat Bones: generally thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy
bone tissue. Provide considerable protection and provide extensive areas for muscle attachment. Include the cranial bone,
the sternum, and the scapulae
Irregular Bones: have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any of the previous categories; have varying amounts
of spongy and compact bones. Include the vertebrae, hip bones, certain facial bones, and the calcaneus
Sesamoid Bones: are shaped like sesame seeds and develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction,
tension and physical stress, such as palms and soles. These bones are not always completely ossified, and typically
measure only a few millimeters in diameter, except for the kneecaps. Their function is to protect tendons for wear/tear.
Sutural Bones: classified by location rather than shape, these bones are small and located in sutures (joints) between
cranial bones.
Bone Surface Markings
Surface Markings: structural features adapted for specific functions. They develop as the body continues to grow,
becoming the most prominent in the adult skeleton. In response to tension of a bone surface from tendons, ligaments,
aponeuroses, and fasciae, new bone is deposited, resulting in raised or roughened areas. Conversely, compression on a
bone surface results in a depression
There are two types of surface markings
1) Depressions and Openings: allow the passage of soft tissues (e.g. blood vessels, nerves, ligaments, and tendons),
or form joints
2) Processes: projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue
(e.g. ligaments and tendons).
Depressions and Openings
Narrow slit between parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
Opening through which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass
Shallow depression
Furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve, or tendon
Tube-like opening
Condyle (forms joints)
Large, round protuberance with smooth articular surface at
the end of the bone
Facet (forms joints)
Smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface
Head (forms joints)
Usually rounded articular projection supported on neck
(constricted portion) of bone
Crest (forms attachment point for connective tissue)
Prominent ridge or elongated projection
Epicondyle ((forms attachment point for connective
Typically roughened projection above condyle
Line (forms attachment point for connective tissue)
Long, narrow ridge or border (less prominent than crest)
Spinous (forms attachment point for connective tissue)
Sharp, slender projection
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