Chapter 9 Persuasive and Sales Messages.docx

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Seneca College
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning EAC349

Chapter 9 Persuasive and Sales Messages Persuading includes  Pathos: appeals to values, needs, beliefs – emotional appeal  Logos: appeals to sound reasoning or logic  Ethos: audience perception of speaker’s good character or credibility st Businesses of 21 century depend on persuasion to get quality work done Analyzing a Persuasive Situation Choose a strategy based on the following questions: a. What do you want people to do? – if several steps, specify what you want them to do NOW b. What objections, if any, will the audience have? Show that your proposal meets their needs o People most likely to share objective concerns (time and money) but not emotional o Readers have vested interest in something if they benefit directly from no changes o Easier for readers to say yes when a request is consistent with self-image c. How strong is your case? Strength depends on argument, credibility and emotional appeal o Accurately document sources o Credibility sources: knowledge, image, relationships – track record, citing experts  Build it by being factual, specific and reliable o Emotional appeal makes the reader want to do what you ask  Conscious memory explains only 5% of the reasons people buy  Consumers want to be different o To satisfy experienced and educated travelers eager to find new territory – e.g. Slovenia is the best kept secret in Europe (since its new to the tourism game) d. Kind of persuasion is best for the organization and the culture? Strategy differs with org. o One firm requires direct and forceful proposal while other may not appreciate it Choosing a Persuasive Strategy Persuasive Direct Request – When want responses for easy requests or ensure busy readers read the message  Consider requesting immediately – delay if abrupt or several purposes  Give readers the information needed to act on your request o Number the questions so reader can check everything is answered o In a claim (defective product), explain what happened – add invoice number & date o In complicated requests, anticipate possible responses – if asking about product meeting certain specs, explain more important criteria for mention of alternatives  Ask for the action you want – include deadlines and explain why deadlines Writing Direct Requests  Present directly to save reader’s time when expecting quick agreement  Don’t contain reader benefits and doesn’t need to overcome objections  Executives pay more attention to messages that are personalized, evoked an emotional response, came from a credible sender and were concise.  Put the request, the topic or question in the subject line – Request for Updated Software  Combination of purposes organized differently – e.g. email asking to reimburse for expenses after an interview – mention hospitality, cement the good impression, then request it Persuasive Problem Solving Messages Use indirect problem solving (bad news) pattern when expecting resistance or logic is more important than emotion in the decision Pattern disarms opposition by showing reasons in favor of your position before can say no  Catch interest by mentioning a common ground - interesting, beneficial o Catch attention with a negative? Headlines? Startling fact? o Common ground suggests mutual interest in solving the problem  Be specific – even a negative makes a good common ground  Define the problem objectively: talk about cost in money, time, goodwill; convince something needs to be done o Concise, concrete and carefully targeted to your audience  Explain the solution: start with favored solution and why no good. Present yours o Impersonal, factual and reliable o If expecting negative initial position, deal with their objections – the stronger the objection, the earlier in the message you should deal with it o Don’t name the objection when it is false or based on misinformation  Show positives outweigh the negatives – to counter objections: o Specify time and money required – may not as much as the reader fears o Put time and/or money in the context of the benefits they bring o Show spending money now will save money in long term o Show that reader’s supporting group will benefit if not the reader o Show sacrifice necessary to achieve a more important goal o Show advantages outnumber disadvantages o Turn a disadvantage into an opportunity – hiring one more person can help with lesser time available for leads  Summarize additional benefits of the solution: Main benefit presented briefly since detailed description of the problem, then additional benefits o Stories & psychological description more persuasive since people remember them o Stories alone better than combination of stories and statistics  Request and motivate the action: include reader benefit or a reason to act promptly o Show that time limit is real – set limits in the middle of the month o Show acting now will save time/money o Show cost of delaying – the longer people delay, less likely to act.  Subject line should show your stance on the issue clearly Use indirect AIDA/AIRA persuasion when you have to overcome resistance (R) Tone in Persuasive Messages  Best phrasing depends on the relationship with your reader  When asking from subordinates: orders or questions will work  When asking from co-workers, superiors or external people: be forceful but polite  Use “Please”  Better tone when giving reasons for request or reasons to act promptly  When to superiors: tone down request by using subjunctive verbs and explicit disclaimers that show you aren’t taking a yes for granted o E.g. If department funds permit, I would like a new computer instead I expect you to give me a computer  Important requests – compose message offline and revise carefully  Subject line show make it clear that you are requesting something o Be specific to make sure reader will read the message  Don’t email or text when requests involve changes in values, culture or lifestyles Collection Letters  Writing results in faster payments than phoning but used when leaving messages don’t work  Early Letters: gentle, assuming that reader intends to pay o Can be a second copy of the bill with past due on it o If one or two early letters don’t work, call to see if company made a mistake  Middle Letters: more assertive o May offer to negotiate a payment schedule, explain good credit rating, why need prompt payment  Late Letters: threaten legal action assuming that consequences will change the behavior o Promise to act if customer doesn’t pay within time limit o Serious collection letters require legal review before being sent.  Establishing the best way to speed payment Sales and Fundraising Letters  Also known as direct mail – ask for order, inquiry or contribution directly from the reader  Has 3 components o A good product, service or cause: product appeals to a specific segment of people and provides adequate profit margin whereas service/cause fills a need o A good mailing list: accurate addresses and good match by the product  Get lists from directories, rent lists from specialist org. etc.
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