Chapter 12 Making Oral Presentations.docx

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Seneca College
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning EAC349

Chapter 12 Making Oral Presentations Purposes  To inform  To persuade – AIDA persuasive plan can be helpful to gain and retain attention  To build goodwill Informative presentation: inform or teach the audience  E.g. training sessions  Secondary purpose to persuade new employees to follow standard procedures and appreciate organizational culture Persuasive Presentations: motivate the audience to act or to believe  Give information and evidence  Visuals, self-disclosure also help  Appear credible and sympathetic to the audience’s needs to build goodwill  At sales meetings, stroke the audience’s egos & validate commitment to organization goals Purpose: specific but not introduction of the talk, more like guides strategy and content choice Planning a Strategy  Identify one idea you want the audience to take home o Give support idea and visuals in simplified manner  Presentation simpler than a written message – listeners must remember what speaker says o Allow for listening to stress key messages – use repetition and emphasis  If co-workers, talk to them about your proposal and ask what they want answers  For audiences inside the organization, answer practical questions like costs, how long etc. Choosing the Kind of Presentation Monologue  Speaks without interruption and without any deviations  Boring though – so need good delivery since audience uninvolved Guided discussions  Speaker a facilitator to help audience tap own knowledge of questions agreed on in advance  Audience gets to find a solution it can “buy into”  Excellent for consulting project results – when audience needs to implement the solution  Need more time  Produces more response, more responses involving analysis  More commitment to results Interactive Presentation  Conversation but can still be in front of the group with visuals  Sales presentations  Use questions to determine consumer needs, objections and gain provisional and final commitment to the purchase  In memorized presentation, buyer talks 30% of the time  In problem-solving sales presentation, buyer may talk 70% until action close Preparing Presentation Outline  Create a storyboard – rectangle means each page or unit, box with a visual for main point a. Write a caption below each box  Ensures no gaps in the argument  A guide for audience to know where you are going and why, avoid distractions and keep on track  Being successful in achieving your purpose… o A clear statement of the problem o Evidence for and implications of the problem o Causes o Responses to counter-arguments o Solution with specific action steps  Outline for 5-10 min class project progress representation a. Purpose – to review progress on “(project name)” b. Introduction – review purpose, scope, methods, timeline c. Work completed d. Obstacles and solutions e. Work to be completed f. Revised timelines g. Next steps Adapting Ideas to the Audience  If audience indifferent, skeptical, hostile, focus on what audience will find most interesting and easiest to accept  Don’t seek major opinion change in one presentation – if talking to small business who does own ads, limit purpose o First prove that can do things what owner can’t do, free owner’s time o Second presentation – prove an ad agency can do a better job o Third presentation – show why your agency – but this is after they are receptive  Link ideas to their experiences and interests Planning Strong Opening and Close  Use these to connect with and interest the audience o Emphasize key points o Establish credibility  Talk without notes to sound natural but still know what you are going to say  Personalize the opener for the audience  Recent events, local events and people readers know better  Use startling statements, quotation, question, narration/anecdotes o Establish a rapport o Include humor – make fun of yourself  To close o Restate main point o Refer to your opener – frames the presentation o End with a vivid, positive picture o State the actions needed for the solution  Shorter sentences and words for presentation versus writing Planning Visuals and Other Devices to Involve Audience  Using visuals makes you seem prepared, professional, persuasive, credible, interesting  In informative presentations, produce 5% more learning than overhead slide and 16% more than just text  Visuals don’t necessarily have every detail – if needed, include in supplement handout  To create and show visuals o Make only one point with each visual – if complicated, break it into several visuals o Substitute visuals for text when possible o Give it a title that makes a point o Limit the information on the visual - <35 words on <7 lines  Simple graphs o Put up visual when ready to talk about it o Leave it up till your next point  Skits powerful if sales meeting or classroom Planning Web Presentations  If small internal audience or intent on building interpersonal skills – face to face the best  If large and dispersed, multimedia presentations right choice for training, meetings, information sharing or promotion.  Planning a webinar involves teamwork o Organizer/facilitator – set topic, identify the speaker, promote the event, handle registration and logistics, moderate the event o Presenter – focus on content, audience and relevant visuals o Assistants  Clear agenda, rehearsal and equipment check critical  Break a long day event into two-hour sections Choosing Information to Include  Something most interesting to your audience and answers any potential questions  Limit to three main points – can have sub points  Clearly show the relationship between main points or turn it into a story  To keep choice of supporting information focused on what the audience needs to know, start with the conclusion and then move backwards  Statistics and numbers convincing if simplifies to two significant digits - Say 17 billion  In informative presentation – link points to audience’s knowledge o Show that it answers their questions, solves their problems, helps them do their job o If detailed content, give written outline – keeps them on track and serves as a reference after the talk  Don’t bring up negatives or inconsistencies unless you are sure audience will think of them o If not sure, save for the question phase – when someone asks, you got the answer Organizing Information  Usually use direct pattern even if reluctant; If multicultural audience, indirect approach  In Canada – be honest about your goal and prove it meets the audience’s needs  In persuasive presentation: start with strong point, best reason o If you have time, give other reasons and respond to any possible objections o Weakest point in the middle - end on a strong note  5 standard patterns of organization o Chronological: past, present and end with future o Problem-causes-solution: best when easy to accept o Exclude alternatives: when hard to accept, first solutions that won’t work o Pro-con: when audience wants to see the weakness in its position o 1-2-3: discuss 3 aspects o
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