Africa = pastoral and domesticated animals, no plant domestication
New Guinea = plant domestication, runners, cuttings, shoots
Andes = domestication of plants/animals in mountains, coastal marine resources, cotton
China = rapid/revolutionary,
AFRICA • Indigenous domestication of plants, adoption from Middle East
• To see what grains/cereals used most, look at baking method. Tef in Ethiopia cooked on griddle.
Remains of griddle evidence of Tef. However, tef rarely falls in to fire, so rarely preserved,
Sahara Desert: Arid environment only 45 kya. 1415 kya was liveable.
Nabta Playa: (Egypt) 9 kya. Example of early village life. 15 square/circular huts, storage pits, pottery,
plant remains of wild sorghum. Some believe that shows evidence of cattle domestication as early as 10
kya. Solid evidence of 7.5kya.
Uan Afuda: (Libya) 89 kya. Preagricultural occupation, wooden artifacts, baskets, pile of sheep dung of
animals not domesticated. Evidence that people not domesticating but managing animals.
Uan Muhuggiag: (Central Sahara) First evidence of domesticated animals in central sahara, 8.5 kya. No
Kosipe and Yuku: earliest occupation of highlands at 30 kya. Animal bones, but no evidence of
domesticated plants or animals.
Wanlek: 6 kya village with houses/central structures. Polished axes, no pottery. Earliest polished axes at
10 kya and no pottery foud until 800 ya.
Kuk Swamp: earliest evidence of agriculture. Networks of drainage pipes to drain the swamp from 103
kya. As time goes on they get more frequent and dense. By 3 kya, agriculture at that spot had come to an
end. Evidence of domesticated taro and banana plants.
Guitarrero Cave: (Peru) domesticated beans 4.3 kya. First thought to be from 10 kya from dating of
charcoal in same level. Thrown off certainty of first domestication in Andes.
Panaulauca Cave: Quinoa seeds 5.74.5 kya.
Asana: 4.5 kya. High concentration of dung in an area surrounded by post holes. Evidence of
domestication of llamas or alpacas.
Paloma: (Coastal Peru) 85 kya. Houses of reeds/grass, 10 families at any given time, many burials
showing no particular social order (possibly men over women), shows centrality of marine resources. Eight skeletons with auditory extoses (a growth in the inner ear from long periods in cold water). Also a
young man missing a leg with cut marks on pelvis may have been bitten by a shark. Wide range of
plants. Only domesticated plants were gourds.
Cotton Preceramic: 5.7 kya. Time period in which Cotton seeds prevalent but before pottery
introduced. Large, monumental architecture.
Aspero: Huaca de los Idolos. 5.5 4.5 kya. Earliest known monumental architecture in New World.
Wide range of domesticated plants.
Caral: artificial mounds 43.5 kya. Wide range of domesticated plants and marine resources even though
far from coast.
El Niño: Reversal of Humboldt Current. Decline in shellfish etc. and torrential rains. Every 2540 years.
• Pottery before agriculture
• Domestication of plants/animals at same time
Yangtze and Huai River Valleys: Rice domesticated in Southern China. Also dogs, pigs, and water
Yellow River Valley: two types of millet domesticated as well as chickens.
Jomon Societies: Japanese preagricultural societies in large villages with elaborate pottery. 132 kya.
Rice and millet only introduced in Late Joman Period (3 kya).
Pengtoushan: In Ygantze and Huai River Valleys. 9 kya. Earliest evidence of domesticated rice.
Bashidang: Neighbout to Pengtoushan. Evidence of hunting.
Jiahu: 98 kya. Many houses, storage pits, graves. Intact flutes evidence that music was part of the
culture, nature and government.
Peiligang Culture: 8 kya, initial stages of millet farming.
Banpo: 6.5 kya. Shows Yangshou Culture after Peiligang Culture. Wide range of plants, animals.
Millet fully domesticated, pigs, and dogs as well.
Hemudu: Contemporaneous with Banpo, rice farming village. Houses on poles over pond water.
Domesticated rice, dogs, pigs, water buffalo.
Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl, Nuchahnulth, Coast Salish
Nobles – head of households, controlled resources, directed ceremonial activity
Commoners – largest group, free
Slaves – acquired thru raids, no status
• Leader of household most important, different households ranked within village
• Tsimshian had only real chiefdom
Ozette: Washington, 4 houses buried in mudslide, showed how much of life was made of organic
• Storage of fish would give wealth
• Labour force needed for salmon run might have been cause of slavery
• To tell if salmon stored look at frequency of cranial bones
Locarno Beach Phase: 3,5002,500 years ago, Seattle to Vancouver produce low numbers of cranial
bones at sites.
Marpole Phase: 24001100 years ago. Beginning of inherited status in Gulf of Georgia. Evidence from
burials of young people and the differences in their burials.
Labrets: Plugs placed below the lips or on the side of the mouth to display status (Bigger = higher).
Namu: 6 kya. First evidence of labret wear
Pender Canal: In Locarno phase, found various people wearing them. (Not direct evidence yet)
Cranial Deformation: starts in Marpole phase, and interesting because it shows that high status was
inherited because it had to be done at a very young age.
Esilao site: Fraser River. Shows charred box with designs