Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl, Nuchahnulth, Coast Salish
Nobles – head of households, controlled resources, directed ceremonial activity
Commoners – largest group, free
Slaves – acquired thru raids, no status
• Leader of household most important, different households ranked within village
• Tsimshian had only real chiefdom
Ozette: Washington, 4 houses buried in mudslide, showed how much of life was made of organic
• Storage of fish would give wealth
• Labour force needed for salmon run might have been cause of slavery
• To tell if salmon stored look at frequency of cranial bones
Locarno Beach Phase: 3,5002,500 years ago, Seattle to Vancouver produce low numbers of cranial
bones at sites.
Marpole Phase: 24001100 years ago. Beginning of inherited status in Gulf of Georgia. Evidence from
burials of young people and the differences in their burials.
Labrets: Plugs placed below the lips or on the side of the mouth to display status (Bigger = higher).
Namu: 6 kya. First evidence of labret wear
Pender Canal: In Locarno phase, found various people wearing them. (Not direct evidence yet)
Cranial Deformation: starts in Marpole phase, and interesting because it shows that high status was
inherited because it had to be done at a very young age.
Esilao site: Fraser River. Shows charred box with designs. Connection between artwork and social
McNichol Creek Site: Prince Rupert. Showed how houses were connected to status as well. House O,
thought to be the elite house was large, had a square hearth, large number of artefacts, and mostly
mammal remains as opposed to fish. Most artefacts were at back (chief), and none at the front (slaves
• Evidence for violence at Namu • Also rock fortifications told by oral history to prevent raiders.
Salisbury Plain: Where the Stonehenge is
Construction of the Stonehenge
Phase 1: 5 kya. Round ditch. Wooden posts in a ring of Aubrey holes on inside of ditch. Animal bones
Phase 2: 54.5 kya. Ditch/Aubrey holes filled in (some with human remains). Timber structure near
Phase 3: 4.53.5 kya. Laying of standing stones.
3a: Set up bluestones (ring of standing stones in the center in Q and R holes). Stone not native to the
area, but in Wales. Transported by glaciers or by humans?
3b: Sandstone blocks on perimeter. Rocks from 30 km away. Rocks put on top and fitted with carved
joints. Trilithons in five pairs in Sarsen circle. Capped by lintels.
3c: Rearranging Bluestones and digging holes. Three phases of bluestones being reorganized and holes
dug in circle around the site. Bluestones on inside of trilithons and between trilithons and sarsen circle.
Avenue: a path bounded by ditches and embankments for a km between River Avon and Stonehenge.
• Mystery because no domestic remains nearby.
Durrington Wall: first evidence of a village in the Late Neolithic period.
• How did they do this without state organization?
• Was there a chiefdom? Did the monument increase as their chiefdom did?
• Evidence that people who built the Stonehenge marked elites by ornaments.
Amesbury Archer: main burial close to Stonehenge. Corresponded to phase 3. Wealth of grave goods.
He was from the Alps... how did he gain status? Snaketown: Hohokam culture in Phoenix Basin has platform mounds and ball courts. 300600 people
and large scale irrigation.