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Archaeology 131 Units 9-14

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ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

Archeology 131 MaFucka Important People: J.G.D. Clark: Technological modes C. Linnaeus: Perhaps the first to try to classify modern humans systematically Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: German anatomist of the late 1700s to early 1800s. Mainly on the basis of cranial shape, he recognized five races Anders Retzius: 1840’s developed the Cephalic Index Carleton Coon: may have originated the most recent version of five races. Fucking Racist Harold Dibble: Professor of Pennsylvania, analysis of stone tools Shannon McPherron: Researcher from Germany, analysis of stone tools Alain Turq: chief curator of heritage France, identifies flint sources Paul Goldberg: Professor of Boston U, geologist in microscopic sediment stuff Dennis Sandgathe: SFU, analysis of stone tools Teresa Steele: Analysis of animal bones Vera Aldeias: Portuguese geoarchaeologist Virginie Sinet-Mathiot: Manages artifacts from sites Words: Postcranium: Trunk and limbs Cranial Capacity: Brain size, the volume of the interior of the cranium/skull Taurodontism: Enlarged pulp cavity (thing inside the tooth) Biochronology: Changes in animal species in deposits where hominin fossils were found, a way to date site Lithic Technology: Stone tools Biocultural Evolution: the combination and interaction of human biological evolution and the evolution of technology Mode 1: Oldowan technology: 2.6-1.8mya, simple chopping tools and sharp flakes Mode 2: Acheulian handaxes: 1.8mya-350? Kya, Handaxes, lasted >1.5my (longest) Mode 3: Prepared core technology: 400-40kya, provide standardization in flake products, provide products with specific shapes, more economical of raw materials Mode 4: Blade technology: 40-12kya Mode 5: Microlith technology: 12k-? ya, Paleomagnetism: Sediment settles on ground, iron particles align with positive magnetic pole at the time, becomes locked in when compacted. Another dating method MNI: minimum number of individuals Enamel Hypoplasia: interrupted-growth lines due to nutritional stress Septicemia: Blood poisoning Otitis: Severe ear infection Crural Index: tibia length/femur length Bergmann’s rule: Body mass tends to be greater in populations that live in cold environments Allen’s rule: Shorter appendages are adaptive in cold climates MC1R: affects production of red-and-yellow pigment pheomelanin and black-and- brown pigment eumelanin AMH: Anatomically modern human Phoneme: basic unit of language – combined to form meaningful words Haplotype: a combination of alleles at adjacent locations on the chromosome that are transmitted together Haplogroup: A group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor “Out of Africa” Hyposthesis: 1. AMH evolved in Africa between 250 and 150kya 2. After 100kya, they spread out from their African place of origin 3. Between 70 and 30kya, they replaced all other humans in the world 4. Therefore, everyones mtDNA should trace back to a single woman who lived in Africa during this time. “mitochondrial Eve” Regional Continuity Hypothesis: 1. AMH evolved in multiple regions from the local archai groups 2. AMH appeared more or less at the same time in Africa, Asia, and Europe 3. This occurred through constant gene flow between these regions 4. Therefore, all modern humans should carry a mixture of very ancient genes from our original common hominin ancestor, ancient genes frm their local indigenous ancestors, and recent genetic additions from interbreeding with outside groups. Weak Garden of Eden Hypothesis: the movement out of Africa was the diffusion of a successful genetic package, not nessarily actual movement of people. This occurred through small random movements of small groups out of Africa, along with constant natural selection favoring this modern genotype. This hypothesis is more supportive of regional continuity. Currently, majority of researchers accept the out of Africa hypothesis as the most likely explanation in light of the current DNA evidence Cephalic Index: breadth/length x 100 Biological Determinism: culture variability was seen as biologically determined and, therefore, inherited in the same way that physical characteristics were. RACISM Polygenic: Traits controlled by multiple genes Polymorphic: Traits that have more than two different genotypes Sites and Shit: Kenya National Monuments: “Nariokotome Boy”, 1.65 mya, 90% complete Skelton Bodo, Middle Awash, Ethiopia: 600kya, 1200 CC, early homo heidelbergensis? Kabwe (broken hill) Zambia: 5-200kya, 1300cc, Homo heidelbergensis Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: 5 Craniums, #5 550cc, if H habilis its brain is so small then this was earliest hominin to leave Africa, if ergaster then there is no longer a big jump in brain size with the appearance of this species. Nihewan Basin: West of Beijing, several sites with stone tools and animal bones, no hominin fossils yet, oldest well dated to 1.6mya, oldest reliable site in Asia Zhoukoudien: 700kya, mean 1040cc Yunxian: Two complete crania, severely crushed, associated stone tools, 600- 350kya Hexian County: Crainium of young adult and mandible fragment along with other cranial fragments, 400-150kya Solo River, Java: 800kya, 1030cc Ngandong, Java: 500-150 kya Liang Bua Cave, Flores: Homo floresiensis, hobbit, stone tools, wrist and toes like apes Schoningen, Germany: c300kya, 8 wooden spears, 20 butchered horses, 2 wooden tools with slotted ends (handles?), 1 digging stick Lehringen, Germany: Yew spear, c. 130kya Clacton Channel, England: Yew spear, 200-250kya Terra Amata, Nice, France: c. 400kya with evidence of structures La Grotte du Lazaret, France: c. 150kya with evidence of a structure Orce, Spain: Venta Micena: cranial fragments date to 1.6mya, no stone tools Barranco Leon: 1.4mya, no hominin remains, there were stone tools Atapuerca Hills, Spain: Groan Dolina: layer 6 dated to 800-875 kya, stone tools from older layer dated to ~1mya Sima de los Huesos: 10 crania and 5500 other skeletal fragments, MNI=28, at least 12 females and 8 males, one <10 years old and three >35, most were adolescents or young adults. Ranged from 1125cc to 1390 cc. May have lived in cave, but poor access to cave and almost no stone tools. Maybe dragged by bears, carnivore tooth marks on over 50%
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