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ARCH 131 (21)
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ARCH 131
Brad Bart

Archeology Chapter 1: What is Biological Anthropology Evolution: frequency of a particular trait and the genes that control it can change from one generation to the next Usually slow and inefficient, but over many generation can create a variety of species Primate: member of the mammalian, monkeys, apes and humans Hominid: member of the primate family Hominidae, bipedal posture and evolved species Humans product of long process of adaption Adaption: trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism produced by natural selection in the context of a particular environment The Scope of Biological Anthropology Paleoanthropology Study of the fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin Discovery revise views of human family tree Greater discoveries because of political and global changes allows researchers into areas unavailable previously Skeletal Biology and Human Osteology Osteology: study of the skeleton When fossil discovered must first determine from what animal it is from Relationship between genetics, human growth and stature and geographic variation in human anatomy is vital to identifying origins and patterns of human migration Paleopathology: study of diseases in ancestral human populations Interested in effects of health and nutrition or interpersonal violence in past societies and it effects patterns of infectious disease Forensic anthropology: the study of human remains applied to a legal context Use methods to determine age sex and estimate age at death Primatology The study of the nonhuman primates and their behavior, anatomy, genetics and ecology Gained prominence during the 1960s and 1970s with Jane Goodall Study to learn more about their intrinsically fascinating patterns of behavior Traits seemed to have appeared through generation of evolutionary change Human Biology human biology: subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaption to environmental extremes and human genetics human adaption learn how ppl. adjust to physiologically to the extremes of environment nutritional anthropologist interrelationship of diet, culture and evolution biological and cultural forces that shape the composition of human populations hormones in the human body influence human behavior 1 human variation deals with the many ways in which ppl differ in their anatomy throughout the world interested in human variation because offers clues about evolution and adaption of human species biomedical anthropologists how human cultural practices influence the spread of infectious disease and effects of pollution on human growth effects that adopting an urbanized lifestyle has on ppl molecular anthropology genetic approach to human evolutionary science that seeks to understand the difference in the genome between humans and loser relatives genetic inheritance is basis for evolutionary change Roots of Modern Biological Anthropology 1856 fossil of ancient human, Neanderthal man, discovered in Germany 3 years later Charles Darwin publish On the origin of Species long time before other scientists agreed that it was ancient man as opposed to abnormal human study of natural history of humans centered on evolutionary history of our species human variation product of the interaction between biological organism and environment physical anthropology: the study of humans as biological organism, considered in an evolutionary framework began with measuring bodies and skulls with attention to definition of human races synthesis of genetics anatomy ecology and behavior emerged with Sherwood Washburn primate were no longer shot and dissected, but behavior studied as well molecular genetics research new way to reconstruct biological histories of human populations as whole bicultural anthropology: study of the interaction between biology, culture, which plays a role in human traits Biological Anthropology Today anthropologists usually become advocates for indigenous ppl and put efforts towards protecting the culture against the government primatologist often backbone of tropical rainforest conservation efforts to set aside land for long-term preservation of bio-deversity paleoanthropologist active in preservation movements to protect the natural fossil heritage od countries Chapter 2: Origins of Evolutionary Thought enormous time scale of evolution one reason that religious fundamentalists in north America argue that only a theory evolution a theoretical framework that is only way to make sense of evidence around us What is Science a process that involves deduction, observation, hypothesis, testing and experimentation deduction: conclusion that follows logically from a set of observations observation: gathering of scientific info by watching a phenomenon 2 hypothesis: preliminary explanation of a phenomenon experimentation: testing of a hypothesis data: evidence produced by an experiment or observation from which conclusions are made scientific method: standard research procedure in which hypothesis stated, data collected to test and hypothesis either supported or refuted Rodman Mchenry reason human walk upright because burn less calories giving advantage over apes Falsifiable: can be shown to be false Opportunity exists for others to come and correct earlier mistakes paradigm: conceptual framework useful for understanding a body of evidence take conflicting evidence and debate Roots of Modern Science during renaissance developed strong since of time, past and whereby that past reconstructed developed sense of cultural variation as they came to realize that ppl of antiquity were not like them first circumnavigation of the globe and discovery and exploration of new world exposed to greater range of human variation proclamation of Pope Pail III in 157 Indians of new world declared to be truly men sharing common creation with all other men used to convert them into Christianity James Ussher calculate date of the creation of earth using old testament of the bible Counting backward using the ages of main characters determine it to be 4004 BC Reasonably accurate estimate seen by Christian 1609 Galileo found proof of Copernicuss theory that earth revolves around sun Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton more powerful telescopes creating stronger evidence Linnaeus and the Natural Scheme of Life Naturalists became more concerned with developing classification schemes for naming and organizing plants and animals linnaen system: classification scheme John Ray first naturalist to use the terms genus and species to designated plants and animals Carolous Linnaeus used physical characteristics of plants and animals to assign scheme of classification Taxonomy: the science of biological classification Putting them into categories vital way to make sense of their patterns of relationship Binomial nomenclature: linnaen naming system for all organisms Used Greek and lain languages However believed in immutability each species existed as separate entity from every other specie Assigned people to family Hominidae and apes to Pongidae Road to the Darwinian Revolution Comte de Buffon: accepted the notion of biological change in general 3 Observed that animal that migrate to new climates change in response Animals of new world weaker and smaller that old world as a result of less healthy an productive environment Georges Cuvier: opponent of the modern concept of evolutionary change Advocated catastrophism: theory that there have been multiple creations interspersed by a great natural disasters such as Noahs flood Jean Baptiste Lamarck: proposed theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics Theory of inheritance: theory of evolutionary change proposing that changes that occur during the lifetime of individual through use or disuse can be passed to next generation All organisms make adjustment to their environments and passed on to offspring Error thinking that evolutionary change could occur during the lifetime of one individual Lysenkoism: soviet era research program that tried to apply Lamarckian thinking to agricultural production Thomas Malthus: essay on the principle of population The Uniformitarians: Hutton and Lyell James Hutton: saw clear evidence of past worlds in the up thrusting of the earth Uniformitarianism: theory that the same gradual geological process we observe today was operating gin past Charles Lyell: proponent of uniformitarians, slow gradual change was the way of the physical world Played key role in convincing both scientific and public that earths history could be understood only in context of deep ancient changes in geology The Darwinian Revolution His professor at Cambridge, John Henslowe, botanist and naturalist who influence his thinking Read the travel and natural history accounts of Baron Freirich Heinrich Alexander von Bhumboldt Went on voyage with Fitzroy to map the coastlines of the continents The Galapagos Spent 5 years exploring south America, Australia and Africa Spent much of his time observing myriad plants and animals Each island had distinct specific of finch Located 13 different varieties of small finches with variations cam to conclusion that they evolved through natural sel
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