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BISC 100 (44)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 100
Professor
Russell Day

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Chapter13HowpopulationsevolveCharlesDarwinandtheOriginofSpeciesNaturalselectionisaprocessinwhichorganismswithcertaininheritedtraitsaremorelikelytosurviveandreproducethanareindividualswithothertraitsAsaresultofnaturalselectionapopulationisagroupofindividualsofthesamespecieslivinginthesameplaceatthesametimecanchangeovergenerationsNaturalselectionleadstoevolutionaryadaptionapopulationsincreaseinthefrequencyoftraitssuitedtotheenvironmentEvolutionthegeneticcompositionofthepopulationhaschangedoertimeTheideaoffixedspeciesTheGreekphilosopherAristotleviewedthatspeciesarefixedpermanentformsthatdonotevolveJudeoChristianculturefortifiedthisideawithaliteralinterpretationofthebiblicalbookofGenesiseachformoflivingbeingindividuallycreatedinitspresentdayformAtthesametimehowevernaturalistswerealsograpplingwiththeinterpretationoffossilsimprintsorremainsoforganismsthatlivedinthepastLamarckandevolutionaryadaptionsNaturalistscomparedfossilformswithlivingspeciesandnotedpatternsofsimilaritiesanddifferencesEarly1800sJeanBaptistedeLamarcksuggestedthatthebestexplanationfortheseobservationsisthatlifeevolvesLamarckexplainedevolutionastherefinementoftraitsthatequiporganismstoperformsuccessfullyintheirenvironmentsHeproposedbyusingandnotusingitsbodypartsanindividualmaydevelopcertaintraitsthatitpassesontoitsoffspringStrongbeaksarethecumulativeresultofancestorsexercisingtheirbeaksduringfeedingsandpassingthatacquiredbeakpowerontoitsoffspringThevoyageoftheBeagleAtourthathadaprofoundeffectonDarwinsthinkingThemainmissionofthevoyagewastochartpoorlyknownstretchesoftheSouthAmericancoastlineDarwincollectedspecimensoffossilsandlivingplantsandanimalsHenotedtheuniqueadaptationsoforganismthatinhabitedsuchdiverseenvironmentsInspiteoftheiruniqueadaptationsthepantsandanimalsthroughoutthecontinentallhadadefinitesouthAmericanstamp
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