Unit 6 – Biochemistry II 1
Objective 1 – Specify the major elements that make up protein molecules.
Will always have carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, may have sulfur and phosphorus
Amino acids = building blocks (monomers) of proteins
o Amino acids combine to form more complex molecules.
o Dipeptide = two amino acids
o Polypeptide = more than two amino acids
All protein consists of one or more polypeptides arranged in various ways
At least 20 different amino acids found in proteins
3D structure of polypeptides
Objective 2 – Describe six major functional groups of proteins, using examples.
Proteins are in charge of a majority of the structure of cells and tissue and are related to many
Type of Protein Function Example
Keratin in the skin, hair, fingernails
Structural Forms structural framework of
various parts of the body Collagen in connective tissue
Hormones and regulates various
Regulatory physiological processes Insulin (regulates blood sugar levels)
Contractile Serve as contractile elements in Myosin and actin
Serves as antibodies to protect the
Immunological Gamma globulin
body against invading microbes
Transport vital substances Hemoglobin (transports O2and
Transport throughout the body some CO in the blood)
Catalytic Acts as an enzyme and functions in Salivary amylase, lipase, lactase
regulating biochemical reactions
Objective 3 – Specify the major elements that make up nucleic acids.
Very large organic molecules
Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus