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Basic Anatomy Terminology

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

Week 4 – Anatomical Terminology 1 Anatomical position  Subject stands upright/erect facing the observer  Head is level  Eyes facing directly forward  Feet are flat and directed forward  Upper limbs are at the sides  Palms are facing forward Prone – body is lying face down Supine – body is lying face up Regional Names Principle regions of the body  Head (cephalic) – skull and face  Neck (cervical) – supports head and attaches it to the trunk  Trunk – chest, abdomen, pelvis  Upper limbs – attaches to the trunk and consists of the shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, hand  Lower limbs – attaches to the trunk and consists of the buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, foot Directional Terms Words that describe the position of one body part relative to another. (Midline – imaginary vertical line that divides the body into the equal right and left sides) Superior – toward the head, or the upper part of a structure Inferior – away from the head, or the lower part of a structure Anterior – nearer to or at the front of the body Posterior – nearer to or at the back of the body Medial – nearer to the midline Lateral – farther from the midline Intermediate – between two structures Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body as another structure Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body from another structure Proximal – nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origin of a structure Distal – farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origin of a structure Superficial – toward or on the surface of the body Deep – away from the surface of the body Week 4 – Anatomical Terminology 2 Planes and Sections Planes – imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body or organ(s) Sections – a cut of the body/organ(s) made along one of the plans Sagittal – vertical plane that divides the body into right/left sides Midsagittal/median – divides the body into EQUAL right/left sides Parasagittal – divides the body into UNEQUAL right /left sides without going through the midline Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior/posterior portions Transverse/cross-sectional/horizontal – divides the body into superior and inferior portions o Oblique – passes through the body at any angle other than 90 The sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes are all at a right angle (90 ) to each other. Body Cavities  Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs  The body cavities are separated by bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures Week 4 – Anatomical Terminology 3 Cranial cavity – cranial bones form a hollow space of the head, conta
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