T UTORIAL Q UESTIONS
1. Only forty years ago, plants and fungi were placed in the same kingdom. Even
today, mycology (the study of fungi) is often included in botany courses. Explain,
with reference to the characteristics of these two groups, why plants and fungi are
now placed in separate kingdoms.
Plants and fungi are very different structurally and functionally and have entirely
separate origins from distinct protist ancestors. Plants are multicellular
photosynthetic eukaryotes, with cellulose cell walls, in which the sporophyte
embryo is protected within specialized structures within the female gametophyte.
Fungi are (primarily) multicellular absorptive heterotrophic eukaryotes, with
chitinous cell walls.
2. A number of adaptations have allowed plants to move from aquatic to terrestrial
a. Give examples of specific structural and reproductive characters of plant
groups that limit them to moist or periodically moist environments.
All plants require water, however the life cycles of bryophytes and seedless
vascular plants (such as ferns) further restrict them to periodically moist
environments. The gametophytes of these groups produce flagellated sperm