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BPK 105 Chapter Notes -Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleolus, Lysosome

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 105
Ryan Dill

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Study Questions Chapter 3 -
1. List and briefly describe the six main functions of the cell. (6 marks)
- cell metabolism and energy use: the chemical reactions that occur within cells are collectively called
cell metabolism, the energy is used for multiple functions
- synthesis of molecules: cells synthesize various types of molecules, proteins, lipids etc
- communication: produce and receive chemical and electrical signals
- reproduction and inheritance: each cell contains a copy of the genetic info of the indvidual
2. Draw the cell illustrating the following organelles: Nucleus, Nucleolus, Cytoplasm, Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosome, Secretory Vesicle, Lysosome, Mitochondria, Cell Membrane and
Gogli Apparatus. (5 marks)
3. Describe the functions of each of the following organelles:Nucleus, Nucleolus, Cytoplasm, Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Ribosome. (5 marks)
- Nucleus: organelle containing the most genetic material of the cell
- Nucleolus: rounded, dense, well-defined nuclear body with no surrounding membrane; subunits of
ribosomes are manufactured within the nucleolus
- Cytoplasm: cellular material surrounding the nucleus
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: many ribosomes attach here, site of protein synthesis
- Ribosome: small, spherical, cytoplasmic organelle where protein synthesis occurs
4. Describe the functions of each of the following organelles:Secretory Vesicle, Lysosome,
Mitochondria, Cell Membrane and Gogli Apparatus. (5 marks)
- secretory vesicle: contains materials produced in the cell; secreted by exocytosis
- lysosome: contains enzymes that digest material taken into the cell
- mitochondria: site of aerobic respiration and major site of ATP synthesis
- cell membrane: encloses cytoplasm, forms boundary between material inside cell and outside
- gogli apparatus: stacks of flattened sacks that collect, modify, package, and distribute proteins and
5. Describe separately, the effects of placing a red blood cell in a hypertonic, isotonic and a hypotonic
solution. Be sure to define the three terms in your answer, and describe the driving force behind your
observations. (5 marks)
- Hypertonic solution: in a hypertonic environment, there is a greater concentration of solute in the
solution and a lower concentration of water than the cytoplasm of the cell. Water will leave the red
blood cell and it will shrivel up, depending on how hypertonic the solution is, it may cause crenation of
the cell.
-Isotonic solution: in an isotonic environment, there is no net movement of water across the
membrane as the concentration of various solutes and water is the same on both sides of the
- Hypotonic: in a hypotonic environment, there is a lower concentration of solute in the solution than
the cell, therefore water enters the red blood cell and the cell will swell with possibility of lysis,
depending on how hypotonic the solution is.
6. Sodium ions can move through the membrane into the cell by diffusion through channels, but require
active transport to move out of the cell. Describe these methods of movement across the membrane
and clearly describe why we observe these differences for sodium movement. (4 marks)
7. Absorbing glucose into the cells of the small intestine after digestion requires the use of secondary
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