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Kin 105 Distance Ed Chapter Notes

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 105
Ryan Dill

Kin 105Ch 1 Human Organism 1122012 123800 PM AnatomyThe scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the bodyDissect or cut apart and separate the parts of the body for studyTwo basic approaches to the study of anatomy are systemic anatomy and regional anatomy o Systemic anatomythe study of the body by systems such as the cardiovascular nervous skeletal and muscular systems o Regional anatomythe study of the organization of the body by areasWithin each region such as the head abdomen or arm all systems are studied simultaneouslyAnatomists have two general ways to examine the internal structures of a living person surface anatomy and anatomical imaging o Surface anatomythe study of external features such as bony projections which serve as landmarks for locating deeper structure o Anatomical imaginginvolves the use of xrays ultrasound magnetic resonance imaging MRI and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures Physiology The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living thinksMajor goals of physiology are o To understand and predict the bodys response to stimuli o To understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment Human physiologythe study of a specific organism the human whereas cellular physiology and systemic physiology are subdivisions that emphasize specific organizational levels Structural and Functional Organization of the Human BodyThe Body can be studied at six structural levels chemical cell tissue organ organ system and organism Chemical LevelAtoms combine to form molecules o Structural and functional characteristics of all organisms are determined by their chemical makeup o Involves how atoms interact and combine into molecules o The function of a molecule is intimately related to its structure Cell LevelMolecules form organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria which make up cells o Cells are the basic structure and functional units of organisms such as plants and animals o Molecules can combine to form organelles which are small structures that make up cells Tissue LevelSimilar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues o A tissue is a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them o The characteristics of the cells and surrounding materials determine the functions of the tissue o Four types epithelial connective muscle and nervous Organ LevelDifferent tissues combine to form organs o An organ is composed of two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions Organ System LevelOrgans make up an organ system o A group of organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions o Coordinated activity of the organ systems is necessary for normal function Organism LevelOrgan systems make up an organism o Any living thing considered as a whole whether composed of one cell such as a bacterium or trillions of cells Characteristics of Life Organization o the specific interrelationships among the parts of an organism and how those parts interact to perform specific functions o Composed of one or more cells o Disruption of this organized state can result in lose of function and death Metabolism o The ability to use energy to perform vital functions such as growth movement and reproduction Responsiveness o The ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life o Include movement toward food or water and away from danger or poor environmental conditions Growth o An increase in size of all or part of the organism o Can result from an increase in cell number cell size or the amount of substance surrounding the cell Development o The changes an organism undergoes through time it begins with fertilization and ends at death o Usually involves growth but it also involves differentiation o Differentiation is change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized Reproduction o The formation of new cells or new organisms HomeostasisThe existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the bodyMost body cells are surrounded by a small amount of fluid and normal cell functions depend on the maintenance of the cells fluid environment within a narrow range of conditions including temperature volume and chemical contentMechanisms such as sweating or shivering normally maintain body temperature near an ideal normal level or set point Negative Feedback o Most systems of the body are regulated by negativefeedback mechanisms which maintain homeostasis Does not prevent variation but maintains variation within a normal range o Has three componentsA receptor that monitors the value of a variableA control center such as part of the brain establishes the set point around which the variable is maintainedAn effector such as the heart can change the value of the variable Positive Feedback o Positive feedback mechanisms are not homeostatic and are rare in healthy individuals o Positive implies that when a value deviates from normal the systems response is to make the deviation even greater Terminology and the Body Plan Body Positions Anatomical positiona person standing erect with the face directed forward the upper limbs hanging to the sides and the palms of the hands facing forward o A person is supine when lying face upward and prone when lying face downward Directional Terms o Superior up inferior down anterior front posterior back o Ventral belly Dorsal back o Proximal nearest distal distant o Medial midline lateral away from the midline Body Parts and Regions Central region head neck and trunk divided into thorax chest abdomen between the thorax and pelvis and pelvis Upper Limb arm forearm wrist and hand Lower Limb thigh leg ankle and foot Body Planes
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