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BPK 110 (61)
Chapter 4

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

CARBOHYDRATES IN OUR FOOD  Unrefined carbohydrates: carb sources eaten in their natural form or with minimal processing.  Refined carbohydrates: processed carbs, typical have a portion of the grain removed.  Enrichment: a type of fortification which adds back some, not all, of the nutrients lost in processing. WHOLE GRAINS  Whole grains include entire grain kernel: - Germ - Bran - Endosperm ADDED REFINED SUGAR (RS)  Chemically similar to natural sugars found in fruits, milk etc.  BUT: common sources of RS (cookies, candy, pop) lack same micronutrients and phytochemicals as natural ones.  Empty Calories – energy with few additional nutrients. TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES  Sugar units – a sugar molecule that cannot be broken down to yield other sugars.  Monosaccharides – single sugar unit. o Must be in this form to be absorbed.  Disaccharides – 2 sugar units.  Polysaccharides – 3+ units. TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES: SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES Glucose – monosaccharide that circulates in the blood. Galactose – monosaccharide that is part of milk sugar. Fructose – monosaccharide found in fruits and vegetables. Maltose – two glucose units. Sucrose – glucose and fructose, table sugar. Lactose – galactose and glucose, milk sugar. TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES: COMPL
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