CARBOHYDRATES IN OUR FOOD
Unrefined carbohydrates: carb sources eaten in their natural form or with minimal processing.
Refined carbohydrates: processed carbs, typical have a portion of the grain removed.
Enrichment: a type of fortification which adds back some, not all, of the nutrients lost in processing.
Whole grains include entire grain kernel:
ADDED REFINED SUGAR (RS)
Chemically similar to natural sugars found in fruits, milk etc.
BUT: common sources of RS (cookies, candy, pop) lack same micronutrients and phytochemicals as natural ones.
Empty Calories – energy with few additional nutrients.
TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
Sugar units – a sugar molecule that cannot be broken down to yield other sugars.
Monosaccharides – single sugar unit.
o Must be in this form to be absorbed.
Disaccharides – 2 sugar units.
Polysaccharides – 3+ units.
TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES: SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
Glucose – monosaccharide that circulates in the blood.
Galactose – monosaccharide that is part of milk sugar.
Fructose – monosaccharide found in fruits and vegetables.
Maltose – two glucose units.
Sucrose – glucose and fructose, table sugar.
Lactose – galactose and glucose, milk sugar.
TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES: COMPL